States recognizing the right to water in their constitution

Table of the constitutions of the world recognizing the right to water
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 4 years, 6 months ago (06/28/2013)
Updated: 3 years, 2 months ago (11/16/2014)
The following table sets out the constitutions of the world that recognize explicitly the right to water and sanitation. The third column deals with the vote on the Resolution 64/292 recognizing the human right to water adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on July 28, 2010.

This table was made by Florence Higuet on the basis of the continental tables that are available on RAMPEDRE under

"Concrétisation", "Approche territoriale", "Nationale", "Continent name", "Legislation summary".
For more informations on the recognition of the right to water and other related rights in the constitution of all the countries of the world,
see those continental tables.

Table of the constitutions of the world recognizing the right to water

CountryExplicit recognition of the human right to water and sanitationVote on Resolution 64/292 recognizing the human right to water and sanitation adopted by the UN GA on July 28, 2010 : yes/abstention/absent
Africa
Democratic Republic of Congoyes
Const. 2006, art. 48:
"(...) the right of access to drinking water (...) are guaranteed."
yes
Egyptyes
Const. 2012, art. 68:
"(...) clean water (...) are guaranteed rights."
yes
(comment*)
Kenyayes
Const. 2010, art. 43:
"(1) Every person has the right
(b) to accessible and adequate housing, and to reasonable standards of sanitation;
(d) to clean and safe water in adequate quantitites;"
abstention
Moroccoyes
Const. 2011, art. 31:
"The state, public institutions and local authorities work to mobilize all means available to facilitate equal access for the citizens to the conditions allowing them to enjoy the rights: (...) to access to water and a healthy environment, [and] sustainable development (unofficial translation)"
yes
Nigeryes
Const. 2010, art. 12:
"Everyone has the right to life, health, physical and moral integrity, to healthy and sufficient food, to drinking water, education and instruction under the conditions defined by the law."
yes
Somaliayes
Provisional Const. 2012 (have to be adopted by a new elected parliament), art. 27:
"Economic and social rights - (1) Every person has the right to clean potable water."
yes
South Africayes
Const. 1996, art. 27-1:
"(1)Everyone has the right to have access to (…) b) sufficient food and water;"
Tunisiain process
Const. 1959 in suspension and new Const. being adopted
Both the second constitutional draft of December 2012 (art. 34) and the third constitutional draft of April 2013 (art. 39) refer to the human right to water.
yes
Ugandayes
Const. 1995, National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy :
"XIV General social and economic objectives:
The State shall endeavour to fulfil the fundamental rights of all Ugandans to social justice and economic development and shall, in particular, ensure that
a) (...)
b) all Ugandans enjoy rights and opportunities and access to education, health services, clean and safe water, work, decent shelter, adequate clothing, food security and pension and retirement benefits.
XXI. Clean and safe water:
The State shall take all practical measures to promote a good water management system at all levels."
absent
Zimbabweyes
Const. 2013 (referendum March 2013), art. 77:
"Every person has the right to:
(a) safe, clean and potable water;
and (b) sufficient food; and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right."
yes
America
Boliviayes
Const. 2009, art. 16.1:
"Every person has the right to water and food.(unofficial translation)"
See also arts. 20.1, 20.3, 309.2, 373.1 and 374.1, .2, .3
author
(comment*)
Ecuadoryes
Const. 2008 (referendum), art. 12:
"The human right to water is essential and cannot be waived. Water constitutes a strategic national heritage for use by the public and it is unalienable, not subject to a statute of limitations, immune from seizure and essential for life. (unofficial translation)"
See also arts 3, 32, 66, 318 and 411
co-author
Mexicoyes
Const. 1917 amended in 2012, art. 4, §7:
"Everyone has the right to the access, the availability and the sanitation of water for a suffisient, safe, acceptable and affordable personal and domestic consumption. (...) (unofficial translation)"
yes
Nicaraguayes
Const. 2005, art. 105:
"The State shall promote, facilitate and regulate the provision of basic public services of energy, communication, water, transport, road infrastructure, ports and airports to the population, and the access to them is also an inalienable right. (unofficial translation)"
co-author
(comment*)
Uruguayyes
Const. 1967 amended in 2004 (referendum), art. 47:
"Water is a natural resource essential for life. Access to drinking water and access to sanitation are fundamental human rights.(unofficial translation)"
o-author
Asia
Maldivesyes
Const. 2008, art. 23:
"Economic and social rights.
Every citizen has the following rights pursuant to this Constitution, and the State undertakes to achieve the progressive realisation of these rights by reasonable measures within its ability and resources:
(a) adequate and nutritious food and clean water;
(f) the establishment of a sewage system of a
reasonably adequate standard on every
inhabited island;(...)"
co-author
Europe
No European country recognizes the right to water in its constitution.
Oceania
Fijimaybe,
absent from Const. 1997, but present in Draft constitution 2013, which is currently under discussion
art. 32:
"Right to housing and sanitation :
(1)The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to accessible and adequate housing and sanitation.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
art. 33:
"Right to adequate food and water :
(1) The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to be free from hunger, to have adequate food of acceptable quality and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
co-author

* You can find each State comment during the vote on the Resolution 64/292 at point 48 (p. 4) of the Official meeting Records A/64/PV.108 of the plenary meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations of July, 28, 2010.

Les Etats reconnaissant le droit à l'eau dans leur constitution

Tableau des constitutions du monde reconnaissant le droit à l'eau
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 6 years, 9 months ago (04/10/2011)
Updated: 3 years, 4 months ago (09/08/2014)
De manière schématique et claire, le tableau ci-dessous reprend les constitutions du monde reconnaissant le droit à l'eau. La troisième colonne porte sur le vote des pays par rapport à la Résolution 64/292 de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU du 28 juillet 2010 reconnaissant le droit à l'eau et à l'assainissement .

Ce tableau a été réalisé par Florence Higuet sur la base des tableaux continentaux disponibles dans RAMPEDRE sous l'onglet "Concrétisation", "Approche territoriale", "National", "Nom du continent", "Récapitulatif des législations".
Pour plus d'informations sur la reconnaissance du droit à l'eau et d'autres droits liés dans les constitutions de tous les États du monde, nous vous renvoyons vers ces tableaux continentaux.

Tableaux des constitutions du monde reconnaissant le droit à l'eau

PaysReconnaissance explicite du droit humain à l'eau et à l'assainissementVote de la Résolution de l'AG de l'ONU 64/292 sur le droit à l'eau du 28 juillet 2010 : oui/abstention/absent
Afrique
Afrique du Sudoui
Const. 1996, art. 27-1 :
"(1)Everyone has the right to have access to (...) b) sufficient food and water;"
oui
République démocratique du Congooui
Const. 2006, art. 48 :
"le droit d'accès à l'eau (...) sont garantis."
oui
Egypteoui
Const. 2012, art. 68 :
"(...) clean water (...) are guaranteed rights."
oui
(commentaire*)
Kenyaoui
Const. 2010, art. 43 :
"(1) Every person has the right
(b) to accessible and adequate housing, and to reasonable standards of sanitation;
(d) to clean and safe water in adequate quantities;"
abstention
Marocoui
Const. 2011, art. 31 :
"L'Etat, les établissements publics et les collectivités territoriales oeuvrent à la mobilisation de tous les moyens à disposition pour faciliter l'égal accès des citoyennes et des citoyens aux conditions leur permettant de jouir des droits (...) l'accès à l'eau et à un environnement sain, [et] au développement durable."
oui
Nigeroui
Const. 1999, art. 12 :
"Everyone has the right to life, health, physical and moral integrity, to healthy and sufficient food, to drinking water, education and instruction under the conditions defined by the law."
oui
Ougandaoui
Const. 1995, National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy :
"XIV General social and economic objectives :
The State shall endeavour to fulfil the fundamental rights of all Ugandans to social justice and economic development and shall, in particular, ensure that :
b) all Ugandans enjoy rights and opportunities and access to education, health services, clean and safe water, work, decent shelter, adequate clothing, food security and pension and retirement benefits."
absent
Somalieoui
Provisional Const. 2012 (qui doit être adoptée par un parlement nouvellement élu), art. 27:
"Economic and social rights - (1) Every person has the right to clean potable water."
oui
Tunisieen cours
Const. 1959 en suspension et nouvelle Const. en cours d'adoption
Tant le deuxième projet de Const. de décembre 2012 (art. 34) que le troisième projet de Const. d'avril 2013 (art. 39) font référence à un droit humain à l'eau.
oui
Zimbabweoui
Const. 2013 (référendum mars 2013), art. 77 :
"Every person has the right to
(a) safe, clean and potable water;
and (b) sufficient food; and the State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within the limits of the resources available to it, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right."
oui
Amérique
Bolivieoui
Const. 2009, art. 16.1 :
"Toda persona tiene derecho al agua y a la alimentación."
Cf. également arts 20.1, 20.3, 309.2, 373.1 et 374.1,.2,.3
auteur
(commentaire*)
Equateuroui
Const. 2008 (référendum), art. 12 :
"El derecho humano al agua es fundamental e irrenunciable. El agua constituye patrimonio nacional estratégico de uso público, inalienable, imprescriptible, inembargable y esencial para la vida."
Cf. également arts 3, 32, 66, 318, 411
co-auteur
Mexiqueoui
Const. 1917, art. 4, § 6 (ajout de 2012):
“Toda persona tiene derecho al acceso, disposición y saneamiento de agua para consumo personal y doméstico en forma suficiente, salubre, aceptable y asequible. El Estado garantizará este derecho y la ley definirá las bases, apoyos y modalidades para el acceso y uso equitativo y sustentable de los recursos hídricos, estableciendo la participación de la Federación, las entidades federativas y los municipios, así como la participación de la ciudadanía para la consecución de dichos fines.”
oui
(commentaires*)
Nicaraguaoui
Const. 2005, art. 105 :
"Es obligación del Estado promover, facilitar y regular la prestación de los servicios públicos b sicos de energ¡a, comunicación, agua, transporte, infraestructura vial, puertos y aeropuertos a la población, y es derecho inalienable de la misma el acceso a ellos."
co-auteur
(commentaire*)
Uruguayoui
Const. 1967 modifiée en 2004 (référendum), art. 47 :
"El agua es un recurso natural esencial para la vida. El acceso al agua potable y el acceso al saneamiento, constituyen derechos humanos fundamentales."
co-auteur
Asie
Maldivesoui
Const. 2008, art. 23 :
"Economic and social rights.
Every citizen has the following rights pursuant to this Constitution, and the State undertakes to achieve the progressive realisation of these rights by reasonable measures within its ability and resources:
(a) adequate and nutritious food and clean water;
(f) the establishment of a sewage system of a
reasonably adequate standard on every
inhabited island;"
co-auteur
Europe
Aucun pays européen n'a reconnu le droit à l'eau dans sa constitution.
Océanie
Fidjipeut-être,
absent dans la Const. 1997, mais présent dans Draft constitution 2013 qui est discuté actuellement :
art. 32 :
"Right to housing and sanitation :
(1)The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to accessible and adequate housing and sanitation.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
art. 33 :
"Right to adequate food and water :
(1) The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to be free from hunger, to have adequate food of acceptable quality and to clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
(2) In applying any right under this section, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available."
co-auteur

*Pour retrouver le commentaire d'un Etat lors du vote de la Résolution 64/292, consultez le point 48 (p. 4) du procès-verbal A/64/PV.108 de la séance plénière de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU du 28 juillet 2010.