The right to water and the Asian constitutions

Table of the Asian constitutions
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 7 years, 6 months ago (04/10/2011)
Updated: 4 years, 1 month ago (09/08/2014)

The following table provides an analyze of the recognition of the right to water and sanitation and related rights in the constitutions of the Asian countries. The last column deals with the vote on the Resolution 64/292 recognizing the human right to water adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on July 28, 2010.


This table was made by Florence Higuet.
Different resources have been used to define its content : the
Waterlex Legal Database and the constitutions database of the University of Richmond.

Table of the Asian constitutions

Country
Explicit recognition of the human right to water and sanitationRecognition of other related human rights (rights to life, housing, health, food, healthy environment etc.)Vote on Resolution 64/292  recognizing the human right to water and sanitation adopted by the UN GA on July 28, 2010 : yes/abstention/absent
Afghanistan
no
Const. 2004
art. 23: right to life
art. 52: right to health
yes
Armenia
no
Const. 1995
art. 15: right to life
art. 33.2: right to a healthy environment
art. 34: right to a standard of living adequate, including housing
abstention
Azerbaijan
no
Const. 1995
arrt. 27: right to life
art. 39: right to a healthy environment
art. 41: right to health
art. 43: right to housing
co-author
Bahrain
no
Const. 2002
art. 18: respect of human dignity
co-authhor
Bangladesh
no
Const. 1972
art. 15: basic necessities
"Provision of basic necessities. It shall be a fundamental responsibility of the State to attain, through planned economic growth, a constant increase of productive forces and a steady improvement in the material and cultural standard of living of the people, with a view to securing to its citizens- (a) the provision of the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, shelter, education and medical care;"
art. 32: right to life
co-author
Bhutan
no
Const. 2008
art. 5 (1): citizen environment protection
art. 21 : state health protection
yes
Burma
no
Const. 2008
arts 45 and 390 (b): state and citizen environment protection
art. 367: right to health
yes
Brunei
no
Const. 1959

yes
Cambodia
no
Const. 1993
art. 32: right to life
art. 559: state environment protection
yes
China
no
Const. 1982
art. 21: state protection of health
art. 26: state protection of the environment
yes
East Timor
no
Const. 2002
art. 29: right to life
art. 57: right to health
art. 58: right to housing
art. 61: right to a healthy environment
co-author
Georgia
no
Const. 1995
art. 15 : right to life
art. 37 (1) and (3): right to health and a healthy environment
co-author
India
no
Const. 1949
art. 21: right to life
Part IV, Directives Principles of State Policy
art. 47: duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
art. 48a: state environment protection
yes
Indonesia
no
Const. 1949
art. 28a : right to life
art. 28c: right to development
("Every person has the right to develop him/herself through the fulfilment of his/her basic needs (...).")
art. 28h (1): right to a healthy environment, housing and health
yes
Iran
no
Const. 1979
art. 22: inviolability of life and dignity
art. 29: right to social security, including health
art. 31: right to housing
art. 43 :
"The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (...) is based on the following criteria:
1. the provision of basic necessities for all citizens: housing, food, clothing, hygiene, medical treatment, education, and the necessary facilities for the establishment of a family (...)"

art. 50: right to a healthy environment
yes
Iraq
no
Const. 2005
art. 15: right to life
art. 31: right to health
art. 30 (1):
"The State shall guarantee to the individual and the family - especially children and women – social and health security, the basic requirements for living a free and decent life, and shall secure for them suitable income and appropriate housing."
art. 33: right to a healthy environment
yes
Israel
no
Const. = different constitutional document as the Basic laws
Basic law - human dignity and liberty
abstention
Japan
no
Const. 1946
art. 13 : right to life and to the pursuit of happiness
art. 25 : right to an adequate standard of living
("All people shall have the right to maintain the minimum standards of wholesome and cultured living. In all spheres of life, the State shall use its endeavors for the promotion and extension of social welfare and security, and of public health.)
abstention
(comment*)
Jordan
no
Const. 1952

yes
Kazakhstan
no
Const. 1995
art. 15: right to life
art. 29: right to health
arts 31 and 38: state and citizen environment protection
abstention
Kyrgyzstan
no
Const. 2010
art. 21: right to life
art. 46: right to housing
art. 47: right to health
art. 48: right to a healthy environment
yes
Kuwait
no
Const. 1962

yes
Laos
no
Const. 1991
art. 19: citizen environment protection
art. 25: state health protection
yes
Lebanon
no
Const. 1926

yes
Malaysia
no
Const. 1957

yes
Maldives
yes
Const. 2008, art. 23:
"Economic and social rights.
Every citizen has the following rights pursuant to this Constitution, and the State undertakes to achieve the progressive realisation of these rights by reasonable measures within its ability and resources:
(a) adequate and nutritious food and clean water;
(f) the establishment of a sewage system of a
reasonably adequate standard on every
inhabited island;(...)"
art. 21: right to life
arts 22 and 67 (h): state and citizen environment protection
art. 23: right to food, housing, health and a healthy environment
("Every citizen has the following rights (...):
(b) clothing and housing;
(c) good standards of health care, physical and mental;
(d) a healthy and ecologically balanced environment;

(e) equal access
to means of communication, the State media, transportation facilities, and the natural resources of the country; (g) the establishment of an electricity system of a reasonably adequate standard on every inhabited island that is commensurate to that island.")
co-author
Mongolia
no
Const. 1992
art. 16 - Citizen'rights:
1) right to life
2) right to a healthy environment
6) right to health
yes
Nepal
no
Interim const. 2007 (commission working for a permanent const.)
art. 12 (1): right to life 16 (1) and (2): right to a healthy environment and health
art. 18 (3): right to food
art. 33 (h): right to housing
("Responsibilities of the State: The State shall have the follows responsibilities: (h) To pursue a policy of establishing the rights of all citizens to education, health, housing, employment and food sovereignty.")
yes
North Korea
no
Const. 1998
art. 57: state environment protection
yes
Oman
no
Const. 1996

yes
Pakistan
no
Const. 1973

yes
(comment*)
Palestine
no
Const. 2003
art. 23: right to housing
art. 33: right to a healthy environment

(comment*)
Philippines
no
Const.1987
art. 2 - Declaration of principles and state policies :
section 15: right to health
section 16: right to a healthy environment
art. 3 - Bill of rights:
section 1: right to life
art. 15 - The Family:
section 3 (2): right to food of children
absent
(a posteriori: yes)
Qatar
no
Const. 2004
art. 33: state environment protection
yes
Saudi Arabia
no
Const. 1992
art. 31: state health protection
art. 32: state environment protection
co-author
Singapore
no
Const. 1965

yes
(comment*)
South Korea
no
Const. 1948
arts 10 and 34 (1): respect of dignity, human worth and welfare, and right to pursue happiness
art. 35: right to a healthy environment, including housing
art. 36 (3): state health protection
abstention
Sri Lanka
no
Const. 1978
Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties
art. 27 (14): state environment protection

co-author
Syria
no
Const. 2012
art. 22 (2): state health protection
art. 27: state and citizen environment protection
absent
Tajikistan
no
Const. 1994
art. 18: right to life
art. 38: right to health
art. 44: citizen environment protection
yes
Thailand
no
Const. 2007
art. 51: right to health and welfare
arts 66-67: community rights to participate in the management and preservation of the environment
art. 85: state environment protection
yes
Turkmenistan
no
Const. 1972
art. 22: right to life
art. 35: right to health
art. 36: right to a healthy environment
absent
Turkey
no
Const. 1982
art. 17: right to life
art. 56: right to a healthy environment
art. 57: right to housing
abstention
(comment*)
United Arab Emirates
no
Const. 1971
art. 19: health protection
yes
Uzbekistan
no
Const. 1992
art. 24: right to existence
art. 40: right to health
arts 50 and 55: state and citizen environment protection
absent
Vietnam
no
Const. 1992
art. 29: state and citizen environment protection
art. 61: health protection
art. 71: life and health protection
yes
Yemen
no
const. 1991
(draft const. under discussion)
art. 55: right to health
co-author
(comment*)


*You can find each State comment during the vote on the Resolution 64/292 at point 48 (p. 4) of the Official meeting Records A/64/PV.108 of the plenary meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations of July, 28, 2010.

Le droit à l'eau et les constitutions asiatiques

Tableau des constitutions d'Asie
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 7 years, 6 months ago (04/10/2011)
Updated: 4 years, 1 month ago (09/08/2014)
De manière schématique et claire, le tableau ci-dessous analyse la reconnaissance du droit à l'eau et à l'assainissement et d'autres droits liés dans les constitutions des pays asiatiques. La dernière colonne porte sur le vote des pays par rapport à la Résolution 64/292 de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU sur le droit à l'eau du 28 juillet 2010.

Ce tableau a été réalisé par Florence Higuet.
Pour ce travail, différentes sources ont été utilisées :
la Waterlex Legal Database et la base de données des constitutions de l'Université de Richmond.



Tableau des constitutions d'Asie

Pays
Reconnaissance explicite ou implicite du droit humain à l'eau et à l'assainissement
Reconnaissance d'autres droits liés (droit à la vie, au logement, à la santé, à l'alimentation, à un environnement sain etc.)
Vote de la Résolution de l'AG de l'ONU 64/292 sur le droit à l'eau du 28 juillet 2010 : oui/abstention/absent
 Afghanistannon
Const. 2004

art. 23 : droit à la vie
art. 52 : droit à la santé
oui
 Arabie saouditenon
Const. 1992
art. 31 : protection étatique de la santé
art. 32 : protection étatique de l'environnement
co-auteur
 Arménienon
Const. 1995
art. 15 : droit à la vie
art. 33.2 : droit à un environnement sain
art. 34 : droit à un niveau de vie adéquat en ce compris le logement
abstention
 Azerbaïdjannon
Const. 1995
art. 27 : droit à la vie
art. 39 : droit à un environnement sain
art. 41 : droit à la santé
art. 43 : droit au logement
co-auteur
 Bahreïnnon
Const. 2002
art. 18 : respect de la dignité humaine
co-auteur
 Bangladeshnon
Const. 1972
art. 15 : besoins élémentaires
"Provision of basic necessities. It shall be a fundamental responsibility of the State to attain, through planned economic growth, a constant increase of productive forces and a steady improvement in the material and cultural standard of living of the people, with a view to securing to its citizens - (a) the provision of the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, shelter, education and medical care;"
art. 32 : droit à la vie
co-auteur
 Bhoutannon
Const. 2008

art. 5 (1) : protection citoyenne de l'environnement
art. 21 : protection étatique de la santé
oui
 Birmanienon
Const. 2008
arts 45 et 390 (b) : protection étatique et citoyenne de l'environnement
art. 367 : droit à la santé
oui
 Bruneinon
Const. 1959

oui
 Cambodgenon
Const. 1993

art. 32 : droit à la vie
art. 559 : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Chinenon
Const. 1982 

art. 21 : protection étatique de la santé
art. 26 : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Corée du Nordnon
Const. 1998 

art. 57 : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Corée du Sudnon
Const. 1948

arts 10 et 34 (1) : respect de la dignité, de la valeur humaine et du bien-être, et droit de poursuivre le bonheur
art. 35 : droit à un environnement sain en ce compris le logement
art. 36 (3) : protection étatique de la santé
abstention
 Émirats arabes unisnon
Const. 1971
art. 19 : protection de la santé
oui
 Géorgienon
Const. 1995

art. 15 : droit à la vie
art. 37 (1) et (3) : droit à la santé et  à un environnement sain
co-auteur
 Indenon
Const. 1949
art. 21 : droit à la vie
Part IV, Directives Principles of State Policy
art. 47 : amélioration étatique du niveau de vie, de l'alimentation et de la santé
art. 48a : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Indonésienon
Const. 1949

art. 28a : droit à la vie
art. 28c : droit au développement
("Every person has the right to develop him/herself through the fulfilment of his/her basic needs (...).")
art. 28h (1) : droit à un environnement sain, au logement et à la santé
oui
 Iraknon
Const. 2005
art. 15 : droit à la vie
art. 31 : droit à la santé
art. 30 (1) :
"The State shall guarantee to the individual and the family - especially children and women – social and health security, the basic requirements for living a free and decent life, and shall secure for them suitable income and appropriate housing."

art. 33 : droit à un environnement sain
oui
 Irannon
Const. 1979

art. 22 : inviolabilité de la vie et de la dignité
art. 29 : droit à la sécurité sociale dont santé
art. 31 : droit au logement
art. 43 :
"The economy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (...) is based on the following criteria:
1. the provision of basic necessities for all citizens: housing, food, clothing, hygiene, medical treatment, education, and the necessary facilities for the establishment of a family (...)"

art. 50 : droit à un environnement sain
oui
 Israëlnon
Const. = plusieurs textes à valeur constitutionnel dont les Basic laws
Basic law - Human dignity and liberty
 
abstention
 Japonnon
Const. 1946

art. 13 : droit à la vie et à la poursuite du bonheur
art. 25 : droit à un niveau de vie suffisant
("Toute personne a droit au maintien d'un niveau minimum de vie matérielle et culturelle. Dans tous les aspects de l'existence, l'État s'efforce d'encourager et d'améliorer la protection et la sécurité sociales, ainsi que la santé publique.")
abstention (commentaire*)
 Jordanienon
Const. 1952

oui
 Kazakhstannon
Const 1995
 

art. 15 : droit à la vie
art. 29 : droit à la santé
arts 31 et 38 : protection étatique et citoyenne de l'environnement
abstention
 Kirghizistannon
Const. 2010
 art. 21 : droit à la vie
art. 46 : droit au logement
art. 47 : droit à la santé
art. 48 : droit à un environnement sain
oui
 Koweïtnon
Const. 1962

oui
 Laosnon
Const. 1991
art. 19 : protection citoyenne de l'environnement
art. 25 : protection étatique de la santé
oui
 Libannon
Const. 1926

oui
 Malaisienon
Const. 1957

oui
 Maldivesoui
Const. 2008, art. 23 :
"Economic and social rights.
Every citizen has the following rights pursuant to this Constitution, and the State undertakes to achieve the progressive realisation of these rights by reasonable measures within its ability and resources:
(a) adequate and nutritious food and clean water;

(f) the establishment of a sewage system of a
reasonably adequate standard on every
inhabited island;
(...)"

art. 21 : droit à la vie
arts 22 et 67 (h) : protection étatique et citoyenne de l'environnement
art. 23 : droit à l'alimentation, au logement, à la santé et à un environnement sain
("Every citizen has the following rights (...):
(b) clothing and housing;
(c) good standards of health care, physical and mental;
(d) a healthy and ecologically balanced environment;

(e) equal access
to means of communication, the State media, transportation facilities, and the natural resources of the country; (g) the establishment of an electricity system of a reasonably adequate standard on every inhabited island that is commensurate to that island.")
co-auteur
 Mongolienon
Const. 1992 

art. 16 - Citizen's rights :
1) droit à la vie
2) droit à un environnement sain
6) droit à la santé
oui
Népalnon
Interim const. 2007 (commission pour const. définitive en travail)
 

art. 12 (1) : droit à la vie
art. 16 (1) et (2) : droit à un environnement sain et à la santé
art. 18 (3) : droit à l'alimentation
art. 33 (h) : droit au logement ("Responsibilities of the State: The State shall have the follows responsibilities: (h) To pursue a policy of establishing the rights of all citizens to education, health, housing, employment and food sovereignty.")
oui
 Omannon
Const. 1996

oui
 Ouzbékistannon
Const. 1992

art. 24 : droit à l'existence
art. 40 : droit à la santé
arts 50 et55 : protection citoyenne et étatique de l'environnement
absent
Palestinenon
Const. 2003

art. 23 : droit au logement
art. 33 : droit à un environnement sain
(commentaire*)
 Pakistannon
Const. 1973


oui (commentaire*)
 Philippinesnon
Const. 1987

 


art. 2 - Declaration of principles and state policies :
section 15 : droit à la santé
section 16 : droit à un environnement sain
art. 3 - Bill of rights :
section 1 : droit à la vie
art. 15 - The Family :
section 3 (2) : droit à l'alimentation de l'enfant
absent (a posteriori: oui)
 Qatarnon
Const. 2004
art. 33 : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Singapournon
Const. 1965

oui (commentaire*)
 Sri Lankanon
Const. 1978
Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties
art. 27 (14) : protection étatique de l'environnement
co-auteur
Syrie
non
Const. 2012
art. 22 (2) : protection étatique de la santé
art. 27 : protection étatique et citoyenne de l'environnement

absent
 Tadjikistannon
Const. 1994
art. 18 : droit à la vie
art. 38 : droit à la santé
art. 44 : protection citoyenne de l'environnement
oui
 Thaïlandenon
Const. 2007

art. 51 : droit à la santé et au bien-être
arts 66-67 : droit de participation des communautés à la gestion et à la préservation de l'environnement
art. 85 : protection étatique de l'environnement
oui
 Timor orientalnon
Const. 2002



art. 29 : droit à la vie
art. 57 : droit à la santé
art. 58 : droit au logement
art. 61 : droit à un environnement sain
co-auteur
 Turkménistannon
Const. 1972
art. 22 : droit à la vie
art. 35 : droit à la santé
art. 36 : droit à un environnement sain
absent
 Turquienon
Const. 1982
art. 17 : droit à la vie
art. 56 : droit à un environnement sain
art. 57 : droit au logement
abstention (commentaire*)
 Viêt Namnon
Const. 1992

art. 29 : protection étatique et citoyenne de l'environnement
art. 61 : protection de la santé
art. 71 : protection de la vie et santé
oui
 Yémennon
Const 1991
 (nouveau projet de constitution en cours)

art. 55 : droit à la santé
co-auteur (commentaire*)

*Pour retrouver le commentaire d'un Etat lors du vote de la Résolution 64/292, consultez le point 48 (p. 4) du procès-verbal A/64/PV.108 de la séance plénière de l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU du 28 juillet 2010.