The right to water and the African legislations

National laws of African countries on access to water
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 4 years ago (12/16/2013)
Updated: 3 years, 3 months ago (09/08/2014)
The following table is the result of an in-depth study on legislative acts ruling the water sector, and more specifically the distribution and  domestic supply, in each African country. The aim was to seek which country recognize the human right to water in its legislation. We did not focus on the human right to sanitation as often those two issues are ruled by different regulations.
Next to water acts - often called "Water codex" - we also analyzed national water policies as some African countries do not have a general water act.
For a few countries research appeared to be quite difficult and we could not find acts and/or policies on water and its supply.

The table is divided in three columns:
- the first one is on the recognition of the human right to water in legislative acts;
- the second one concerns the recognition of the human right to water in policies or action programs;
- and in the third column we resume some elements linked to access to water as water property and priority in water uses.

At present time, ten African countries have recognized the human right to water in their national water act.

The text fragments are reproduced in the original language.


Country
Explicit recognition of the human righ to water in an act
Explicit recognition of the human right to water in policy or action programm
Other elements and/or acts linked to access to water for domestic use
Algeria

Loi n° 05-12 du  4 août 2005 relative à l'eau 

Art. 3. Les principes sur lesquels se fondent l'utilisation, la gestion et le développement durable des ressources en eau sont :— le droit d’accès à l'eau et à l'assainissement pour satisfaire les besoins fondamentaux de la population dans le respect de l'équité et des règles fixées par la présente loi, en matière de services publics de l'eau et de l'assainissement ;



Angola




Lei de Águas n° 6/02 de 21 de Junho de 2002
Art. 5. - Propriedade das águas
(1) As águas, objecto da presente lei, como um recurso natural,
são propriedade do Estado, constituindo parte do domínio público hídrico.
(2) O direito do Estado relativo às águas, enquanto recurso natural, inalienável e imprescritível.
(3) O direito ao uso do domínio público hídrico é concebido de modo a garantir a sua preservação e gestão em benefício do interesse público.
Art. 9. - Princípios de gestão de águas
(1) A gestão das águas rege-se pelos princípios seguintes:
a) Do direito de cidadão e entidades colectivas à água; (...)
i) Da complementaridade do abastecimento de água com o saneamento residual líquido;
Art. 10. - Objectivos das políticas de gestão de águas
(2) Ao Estado compte implementar, em todo o território nacional e respeitando os Princípios de Gestão de Águas, políticas de gestão orientadas para a realização dos seguientes objectivos:
a) Garantir ao cidadão e entidades colectivas o acasso e uso da água;
d) Abastecer as populações de forma contínua e suficiente em água potável, para satisfação das suas necessidades domésticas e de higiene;
g) Garantir o adequado saneamento das águas residuas e regular o lançamento de efluentes;
Art. 21. - Realização do direito de acesso à água
O direito de acesso à água é realizado atravès dos usos comuns e privativos.
Art. 22. - Classificação de usos
(1) As águas, quanto ao uso, classificam-se em águas de uso comum e águas de uso privativo, sendo o uso comum aquele que resulta da lei e que se realiza sob condição natural, sem formalidades contratuais ou administratives, e o uso privativo auqel que requer uma licença ou concessão, á excepção do diposto no Artigo 26° da prensete lei.
(2) O uso comun tem prioridade sobre o uso privativo.
Art. 23. - Usos comuns
(1) Usos comuns são os que visam satisfazer necessidades domésticas, pessoais e familiares do utilizador, incluindo o abeberamento de gado e rega de culturas de subsistência, sem fins estritamente comerciais.
(2) Os usos comuns das águas são gratuitos el ivres, e realizam-se de acordo com o regime tradicional de utilização das águas, sem alterar significativamente o seu caudal nem a sua qualidade.
(3) Os usos comuns realizam-se sem necessidade de licenciamento ou concessão, cabedo à instituição respoñsável pela gestão dos recursos hídricos da bacia e demais entidades competentes proceder ao seu reconhecimento e promover o respectivo inventário. (...)
Art. 26. - Uso decorrente do direito de explora ção da terra
(1) Os titulares do direito ao uso e aproveitamento da terra, a fim de satisfazer suas necessidades domésticas e as necessidades normais e previsíveis da agricultura, podem, sem licenciamento e a título gratuito, nos termos do regulamento, utilizar: (...)

Art. 33. - Subordinação de prioridade dos usos privativos
(2) O abastecimento de água à população, para consumo humano e satisfação das necessidades sanitárias, tem prioridade sobre os demais usos privativos.
Water sector development strategy 2003-2016
Benin
Loi n° 2010-44 du 24 nov. 2010 portant gestion de l'eau
Art. 6.  Chaque citoyen béninois a le droit de disposer de I'eau pour ses besoins et les exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Art. 17. L'eau, élément du patrimoine commun  national, fait partie du domaine public.



Botswana



Water Act (1968, Chapter 34:01, consolidated version of 31-12-2008)
Art. 5. - Casual use of water in a public strea comptentesm, etc.
Any person may, without a water right, while he is at any place where he has lawful access to a public stream or to a natural lake, pan or swamp, take and use public water therein for the immediate purpose of- (a) watering stock;(b) drinking, washing and cooking; or(c) use in a vehicle,but nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing the construction of any works.
Burkina Faso

Loi n° 002-2001/an portant loi d'orientation relative à la gestion de l'eau 

Art. 2. La loi reconnaît le droit de chacun à disposer de l'eau correspondant à ses besoins et aux exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Le Ministre chargé de l'eau, le Ministre chargé des affaires sociales et le Ministre chargé de la santé proposent et mettent en œuvre, dans le respect de leurs attributions respectives, en liaison avec les autres autorités publiques compétentes et les personnes privées intervenant dans le domaine de l'eau, les mesures nécessaires à l'exercice de ce droit.

Art. 5. L’eau est un élément du patrimoine commun de la Nation. Elle fait partie du domaine public.



Burundi



Loi n° 1/02 du 26 mars 2012 portant Code de l'eau
Art. 2. La gestion et l'utilisation de l'eau sont fondées essentiellement sur les principes suivants:
4° Principe de solidarité
La population est au centre de toutes les actions à entreprendre dans la gestion et l'utilisation des ressources en eau.
Des mesures doivent être prises pour permettre aux pauvres et autres groupes vulnérables d'avoir  accès au service d'eau et d'assainissement à un prix abordable.
Art. 66. Les eaux usées domestiques, notamment des eaux ménagères des cuisines, des eaux de vannes ainsi que des effluents des fosses septiques, ne peuvent pas être déversées dans les canalisations ou égouts servant à l'évacuation des eaux pluviales ou encore directement dans les cours d'eaux et les lacs.

Art. 84, § 2. Néanmoins, le prélèvement et l'utilisation de l'eau du domaine public hydraulique à des fins domestiques peuvent être librement pratiqués.
Art. 85. Sont considérés comme affectés à des fins domestiques, au sens du présent titre, le prélèvement et l'utilisation de l'eau destinée exclusivement à la satisfaction des besoins des personnes physiques dans les limites des quantités d'eau nécessaires à l'alimentation humaine, aux soins d'hygiène, au lave et aux productions végétales ou animales réservées à la consommation familiale de ces personnes.
Art. 86. Le Ministre ayant la gestion de l'eau dans ses attributions peut exceptionnellement prendre des mesures de limitation ou de suspension provisoire des usages de l'eau visés à l'article 85, pour faire face à une menace ou aux conséquences d'accidents, de sécheresse, d'inondations ou à un risque grave de pénurie.
Art. 89. L'usage de l'eau est régi par l'ordre de priorité fixé par le Gouvernement en fonction des spécificités locales ou régionales des besoins écologiques. L'établissement de ces priorités porte notamment sur :
la satisfaction des besoins de l'alimentation en eau potable de la population et de l'abreuvement du bétail ;
Cameroon



Loi n° 98-005 du 14 avr. 1998 portant régime de l'eau
Art. 2. (1) L’eau est un bien du patrimoine commun de la Nation dont l’Etat assure la
protection et la gestion et en facilite l’accès à tous.
Cape Verde



Lei nº 41/II/84 de 18 de Junho 1984 

Art. 3. - Princípio da dominialidade pública
1. Todos os recursos hídricos pertencem ao domínio público do Estado.
2. Pertencem igualmente ao domínio público do Estado as obras hidráulicas realizadas por pessoas colectivas de direito público, as revertidas ao Est ado por extinção das respectivas concessões e, em geral, as destinadas a uso público ou colectivo.

Art. 7. - Benefício da colectividad
A gestão dos recursos hídricos deve visar a obtenção de máximo benefício da colectividade, assegurando, paralelamente, o desenvolvimento e a conservação desses recursos, em condições de utilização racional.

Art. 59. - Prioridades
1. O abastecimento da população em água potável e para fins domésticos é prioritário. 2. A ordem de prioridades dos restantes usos da água será fixada pelo Conselho Nacional de Águas, para cada circunscrição hidrográfica, em conformidade com as orientações do Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento e em função da importância sócio-económica da circunscrição.

Art. 61. - Casos de dispensa de autorização É livre, não carecendo por isso de autorização, o uso de: a) Águas para consumo individual e fins domésticos, provenientes de qualquer tipo de captação ou reservatórios públicos a tal destinado;

Art. 87. - Obstáculos ao consumo humano As acções dolosas que visem impedir ou dificultar o uso da água para o consumo humano são puníveis com pena de prisão de seis meses a dois anos.
Central African Republic

Loi n° 06.001 du 12 avr. 2006 portant Code de l'eau 

Art. 6.  L’eau fait partie du domaine public hydraulique. Sa mobilisation, sa gestion, sa mise en valeur et sa protection doivent s’effectuer dans le respect des équilibres naturels et de l’intérêt général.
Elle ne peut faire l’objet d’appropriation que dans les conditions déterminées par les Lois et règlements en vigueur.

Art. 40. La Loi reconnaît à chaque citoyen le droit de disposer de l’eau correspondant à ses besoins et aux exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Le Ministre en charge de l’eau propose et met en œuvre en liaison avec les autorités publiques compétentes, les mesures nécessaires à l’exercice de ce droit.

Art. 44. L’alimentation en eau potable de la population demeure la priorité dans la répartition des ressources en eau.(...)



Chad



Loi n° 016/PR du 18 août 1999 portant Code de l’eau

Art. 149. L'allocation des ressources en eau doit à tout moment tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations. L'alimentation en eau potable des populations demeure, dans tous les cas, l'élément prioritaire dans l'allocation des ressources en eau.
Comoros



Loi n° 94-037 du 21 déc. 1994 portant Code de l'eau 

TITRE I - EAUX NATURELLES
L'eau douce, ressource naturelle renouvelable, fait partie du patrimoine national dont l'Etat est responsable envers la collectivité. (...)
Republic of Congo



Loi n° 13-2003 du 10 avr. 2003 portant Code de l'eau 
Art. 9. Le domaine public hydraulique est affecté de manière prioritaire en vue de satisfaire les besoins suivants :
- alimentation en eau potable de la population;
- abreuvement du cheptel et autres besoins de l'agriculture;
- besoins de l'industrie.
Democratic Republic of  Congo



Pas une loi générale sur l'eau, mais une douzaine d'ordonnances et de décrets encadrant le secteur de l'eau. Un avant-projet de loi portant Code de l'eau est en cours de révision et d'adoption par le Parlement.
Côte d'Ivoire



Loi n° 98-755 du 23 Décembre 1998 portant Code de l’eau
Art. 7. L’eau fait partie du patrimoine commun national.
Sa protection, sa mobilisation et sa mise en valeur, dans le respect des équilibres naturels, sont d’intérêt général.
Elle ne peut faire l’objet d’appropriation que dans les conditions déterminées par les dispositions de la présente loi.

Art. 60. L’Etat garantit :
l’approvisionnement en eau potable, la protection, la conservation et la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau, la satisfaction des autres besoins. (...)

Art. 70. L’alimentation en eau des populations demeure, dans tous les cas, l’élément prioritaire dans la répartition des ressources en eau.
L’allocation des ressources en eau doit, à tout moment, tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations.
Djibouti



Loi n°93/AN/95/3ème L du 4 avr. 1996 portant Code de l'eau
Art. 1er. Les dispositions du présent code ont pour objet la protection du milieu aquatique, la préservation de la ressource commune en eau et la conciliation dans l'intérêt de tous des différents usages. Elles visent à permettre une gestion équilibrée de la ressource, son utilisation raisonnable et équitable et l'harmonisation des règles qui en régissent l'usage par les personnes publiques ou privées de manière à : 
2) assurer l'alimentation en eau potable de la population et protéger contre toute pollution de la qualité des eaux, en particulier, souterraine; 
Egypt



aucunes données
Eritrea



Eritrean Water Proclamation n° 162/2010 of 23 August 2010
(texte non accessible)
Ethiopia



Water resources management policy 1999
1.3 Fundamental principles of water resources management policy

The following are the fundamental policy principles that guide the equitable, sustainable and efficient development, utilization, conservation and protection of water resources in Ethiopia.
1. Water is a natural endowment commonly owned by all the peoples of Ethiopia.
2.
As far as conditions permit, every Ethiopian citizen shall have access to sufficient water of acceptable quality, to satisfy basic human needs.

2.1 General water resources management policu
2.1.1 General

The general policies are to:
10. As much as conditions permit, ensure that the provision of basic necessities of water at the household level are fulfilled and to ensure that all other allocations of water after the basic needs shall be based on equitable and efficient socio-economic development criteria.
12. Although all water resources development ought to be based on the "economic value" of water, the provision of water supply services, to the underprivileged sectors of the population, shall be ensured based on a special "Social Strategy".


2.2 Policy on cross-cutting issues
2.2.1 Water allocation and apportionment
1. Recognize that the basic minimum requirement, as the reserve (basic human and livestock needs, as well as environment reserve) has the highest priority in any water allocation plan. 2. Ensure that water allocation gives highest priority to water supply and sanitation while apportioning the rest for uses and users that result in highest socio-economic benefits.
Gabon



Loi n° 8/93, du 7 avr. 1993,

fixant le régime juridique de la production, du transport, de la distribution de l'énergie électrique et de l'eau potable (texte non accessible)

Gambia



Draft national water resources bill 2004 (National water resources act en cours d'adoption)

National water policy 2006
Chapter 1 Policy overview
1.1 Principles

1.1.2 (...)The Presidents Office has endorsed the Policy and the underpinning principles, which entail a realisation, and acknowledgement of the need to:
1. Meet basic water needs in a sustainable manner while conserving resources and preserving the environment for future generations
2. Maintain an equitable balance between universal access to water supplies and the needs of individual users (...)
1.2 Objectives

1.2.1 The overarching Policy objectives are the establishment of a manageable and inclusive water resources framework based on IWRM principles, and the promotion of an enabling environment enforced through the rule of law that:
1. Acknowledges that access to water is a common right, which is held in trust by the Government on behalf of the people of The Gambia (...)
Chapter 5 Water resources development and utilisation
5.1 Overview

5.1.1 Once the sustainable management of The Gambia’s water resources has been successfully accomplished they must be developed and utilised effectively. There is an explicit obligation on Government to provide public service water resources in a sustainable and equitable manner to its entire people. The most important of these water related obligations is clearly meeting basic potable water service needs. This is essential for developing human resources, building the economy and promoting a healthy and equitable society.
Ghana



National water policy 2007
1. Introduction and policy context
1.2 Policy formulation process
(...)
The policy is also set within our commitment to international obligations and protocols and to the broad guiding principles of water management.
The principles of fundamental rights of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs
• The principle of meeting the social needs for water as a priority while recognising the economic value of water and the goods and services it provides

2. Strategic actions of policy
2.2.2 Focus area 2- Access to water
Principles and challenges
The main principles and challenges include:
(i) the fundamental right of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs;
(ii) ensuring a minimum water requirement for the maintenance of health and well-being is assured.

Water resources Commission Act, 1996 (Act n° 522)
Art. 12. The property in and control of all water resources is vested in the President on behalf of, and in trust for the people of Ghana. Art. 14. (1) A person who has lawful access to water resources may abstract and use such water for domestic purposes.
Water use regulations, 2001 (L.I. (Legislative instrument) 1692)
Water use permit
Art. 1. Subject to the Act, a person may obtain a permit from the Commission for:
(a) domestic water use

Priority of water use
Art. 7. (1) In considering an application, the Commission shall be guided by
(a) the prevailing water policy,
(b) domestic water use, and
(c) any other water use which fulfils the goals of national socio-economic development
(2) Where the  priorities of two applications are the same, the first in time shall be given the priority
Guinea

Loi n°L/94/ 005/CTRN du 15 févr. 1994 portant Code de l'eau

Art. 4. Les ressources en eau de la République de Guinée font partie intégrante du Domaine public naturel de l’Etat. En tant que telles, et sous réserve des dispositions du présent Code, elles ne sont pas susceptibles d’appropriation. Cependant elles peuvent faire l’objet d’un droit d’utilisation de nature précaire et limitée soumis au régime de l’autorisation préalable.

Art. 6. Sous réserve des dispositions de l’article 4 de la présente loi toute personne a un droit d’accès inaliénable aux ressources en eau et un droit de les utiliser à des fins domestiques.
Est considérée comme affectée à des fins domestiques, l’utilisation des ressources en eau destinée exclusivement à la satisfaction des besoins des personnes physiques dans les limites des quantités d’eau nécessaires à l’alimentation humaine, aux soins d’hygiène, au lavage et aux productions végétales ou animales réservées à la consommation familiale de ces personnes. Les droits visés au présent article comportent l’utilisation de l’eau extraite et contenue dans un réceptacle individuel ou collectif. Toutefois l’utilisateur est tenu d’exercer son droit de façon à préserver la disponibilité de la ressource en quantité et en qualité et à ne pas léser les autres utilisateurs.



Guinea Bissau




Decreto-Lei n° 5-A/92 de 18 Setembro 1992 aprovo o Codigo de aguas
art. 3. - Da inalienabilidade
1. O dominio hidrico do Estado é inalienavel e imprescribivel e nao pode ser susceptivel a propriedade privada.
2. Os individus, as colectividades, as empresas publicas e privadas so podem obter direitos de utilizaçao segundo o presente Decreto-Lei.
3. O Estado reconhece e garante os direitos de uso tradictionais no ambito do presente Decreto-Lei e dos titulos regulamentares concedidos para sua execuçao.

art. 7, §  1. - Do uso livre
O proprietario ou usufrutuario dam terreno tem o direito de utilizar livremente a agua das chuvas que caiem no seu terreno, outras aguas do dominio publico, com vista a satisfaçao das necessidades domésticas, pessoais e familiaires dos utentes incluindo o abeberramento do gado e a rega da sua horta, con meios tradicionais e sem meios mecanicos.

 Art. 29. - Do saneamento
1. O saneamento dos centros populacionais tem por objectivos assegurar e evacuacao rapida e sem estagnaçao das aguas usa-das., domesticas e industriais, susceptivels de ter efeitos nocivos, e das aguas fluviais susceptiveis de submergir os locais habita-dos, em condicoes compariveta com as exigencias da saude publica e da salvaguarda do meio ambiente.
2. Nos centros populacionais equipardos com uma rede de asgotos, a ligaçao a rede colectiva das habitaçoes ou quaisquer estabelecimentos rejellando aguas e obrigatoria.
Equatorial Guinea



Ley 3/2007 das aguas y costas (avant-projet)
Art. 7. Todo propietario puede abrir libremente sin necesidad de autorizacion pozos para elevar aguas dentro de sus fincas para usos domésticos y necesidades ordinaras de la vida, aunque con ello resultasen menguadas las aguas de sus vecinos, debera, sin embargo, guardar la distancia minima de cinco metrosentre pozo y pozo, dentre de las poblaciones, y de quince metros en el campo, entre la nueva excavacion y los pozos, estanques, fuentes y acequiaspermanentes de los vecinos.

Art. 31, § 1. Mientras las aguas corran por sus cauces  naturales y públicos y no lo impida una concesión particular,todos podrán usar de ellas para beber, lavar ropas,vasijas y cualesquiera otros objetos,bañarse y abrevar o bañar ganado, con sujeción a las normas dictadas al efecto.

// Art. 32.
Art. 74. En los casos de escasez de agua, se establecen los siguientes principios:
1. Las aguas se aplicaran de preferencia a los usos domésticos, servicios publicos, abrevaderos, banos, y abasteciliento de sistemas de transporte;
Kenya



Water act, Act n° 8 of 2002
Art. 3. Every water resource is hereby vested in the State, subject to any rights of user granted by or under this Act or any other written law.

Art. 32 (2). The use of water for domestic purposes shall take precedence over the use of water for any other purpose, and the Authority may, in granting any permit, reserve such part of the quantity of water in a water resource as in its opinion is required for domestic purposes.
National water services strategy 2007-2015
Lesotho

Lesotho water and sanitation policy febr 2007
POLICY CONTEXT

Policy Objectives

The objectives of the Lesotho Water and Sanitation Policy (LWSP) are to promote: 2)Adequate and sustainable supply of potable water and sanitation services to all of the population of Lesotho;

Principles
The guiding principles of the Lesotho Water and Sanitation Policy are:
F. All the Basotho are entitled to have access to a sustainable supply of potable water and to the provision of basic sanitation services at an affordable cost;
Policy Statement 2 - Water Supply and Sanitation Services

Ensure access to a sustainable supply of potable water and basic sanitation services for all Basotho
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
18. Social good: water as a commodity to which social value is attached, arising from the fact that water is an essential building block for life, the universal right of al to have access to water is generally accepted.

Water act, Act n° 15 of 2008
Art. 4. - Ownership of Water Resources
The ownership of all water resources in Lesotho is vested in the Basotho Nation and held in trust by the King on behalf of the Basotho Nation.

Art. 5. - Use of water
(2) In the case of conflicting water use and if water is insufficient to cater for other uses, domestic use shall prevail and be given first preference over other uses.

Art. 13. - Determination of a reserve
(1) The Commissioner shall determine a reserve for all or part of water resources within the country.
(2) A reserve shall comprise
(a) the basic human needs reserve representing the quantity and quality of water resources required to satisfy the basic human needs of those dependent on the concerned water ressource;--
Liberia

Water supply and sanitation policy april 2009
ForwardWater is life and sanitation dignity. Article 20 (a) of the Liberian Constitution proclaims that “No person shall be deprived of life”. Since water is life, it follows that nobody living in Liberia should be deprived of water. The Government of Liberia is a signatory to the Declaration of Human Rights and other United Nations Declarations which ensure that all human beings have the right to life and dignity. Among these rights are the right to safe drinking water and the right to live in dignity in ones country of choiceTwo core human rights instruments — the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women — explicitly recognize the right to water. The latter also recognizes the importance of sanitation. In 2002, the United Nations formally declared access to domestic water supply a human right in and of itself, through General Comment No. 15 of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights..
1.1.3 Guiding principlesThe guiding principles of Liberia’s Water Supply and Sanitation Policy are based on a holistic approach incorporating considerations for equity, efficiency, environmental and service sustainability and recognize international WSS principles such as those articulated in the 1992 Dublin Principles. These guiding principles include:
5. Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a basic human right.


Libya



Libyan Water Law n° 3 of 1982
(texte non accessible)
National water strategy 2000-2025
(texte non accessible)
Madagascar

Loi n°98-029 du 20 janv. 1999 portant Code de l'eau

Exposé des motifs

Le droit fondamental d'accès à l’Eau met notamment l’accent sur trois constats essentiels :
1° l’eau est un patrimoine commun national,
2° l’eau est un élément naturel indispensable,
3° inégalement répartie, elle pose des problèmes d’ordre économique, social et sanitaire.

Art. 1. L'eau fait partie du patrimoine commun de la Nation. (...)

Art. 2. L'eau est un bien public relevant du domaine public. Elle ne peut faire l'objet d'appropriation privative que dans les conditions fixées par les dispositions de droit civil traitant de la matière ainsi que des servitudes qui y sont attachées en vigueur sur le territoire de Madagascar.

Art. 28, § 2. En cas de limitation de ressources en eau disponibles, priorité est donnée à l'approvisionnement en eau potable compte tenu des normes de consommation retenues en application du présent code.

Art. 37. Le service public de l’approvisionnement en eau potable et de l’assainissement collectif des eaux usées domestiques, appelé au sens du présent chapitre "service public de l'eau et de l'assainissement", est un service d'approvisionnement en eau potable et d'assainissement collectif des eaux usées domestiques fourni au public, c'est à dire à tout usager, personne physique ou morale de droit public ou privé, avec obligations de service public définies dans des cahiers des charges.

Le service universel de l’approvisionnement en eau potable est l' attribut du service public basé sur
l’obligation de fourniture à tous les usagers d’une quantité minimum et d’un service minimum d’eau potable. (...)



Malawi



Water resources act (1969, Chapter 72:03)
Art. 3. Ownership and control of public water (1) The ownership of all public water is vested in the President.(...)

National water policy (2005)

3.3 Overall Policy Objectives

3.3.3 Ensure that all persons have convenient access to sufficient quantities of water of  acceptable quality and the associated water-related public health and sanitation services at any time and within convenient distance;

3.4 Guiding principles

3.4.1 All people shall have access to potable water and sanitation services to reduce the incidence of water related diseases;

3.4.11 The protection and use of water resources for domestic water supply shall be accorded the highest priority over other uses;
Mali



Loi  n°02- 006/ du 31 janvier 2002 portant code de l'eau

Art. 2. La présente loi fixe les règles d'utilisation, de conservation, de protection et de gestion des ressources en eau. L'eau est un bien relevant du domaine public. Son usage appartient à tous pourvu qu'il ne soit pas contraire à l'intérêt public. Il s'exerce dans le cadre de la solidarité entre usagers.

Art. 4. La protection de l'eau, sa mise en valeur et le développement de la ressource utilisable, dans le respect des équilibres naturels constituent un devoir pour tous : l'État, les collectivités territoriales, les citoyens.

Art. 26. L'assainissement des agglomérations contre les effets nuisibles des eaux vise à assurer l'évacuation rapide et complète des eaux usées domestiques et industrielles ainsi que des eaux pluviales susceptibles de causer des nuisances ou d'inonder les lieux habités, dans des conditions conciliables avec les nécessités de la santé publique et de l'environnement.

Art. 27. L’Administration et les collectivités prennent en charge, avec la participation des usagers concernés, tous travaux tendant à la réalisation d'ouvrage collectif d'évacuation et de traitement des eaux usées et fluviales.

Art. 28. Dans les agglomérations dotées d'un réseau d'égouts, le raccordement à ce réseau est obligatoire pour toute habitation ou établissement connecté au réseau d'eau courante.

Art. 44. La production, le transport et la distribution d’eau potable en vue de satisfaire les besoins du public constituent un service public. Ce service public est délégué à des exploitants dans le cadre de Délégation de Gestion de service public délivré dans les conditions prévues par la présente loi.
Maurice



National Water Policy (en cours d'adoption)

Central water authority act 1971
Mauritania




Loi n° 2005-030 portant Code de l’eau
Art. 2. L’eau fait partie du patrimoine de la Nation.
L’usage de l’eau constitue un droit reconnu à tous, dans le cadre des lois et règlements en vigueur.
La protection et la mise en valeur des ressources en eau, dans le respect des équilibres naturels, sont d’intérêt général et constituent un impératif national qui implique l’Etat, les collectivités locales, les personnes morales de droit privé et l’ensemble de la population.
La politique de l’Etat vise à garantir l’accès des populations à l’eau potable. Elle privilégie le partenariat entre l’Etat, les collectivités locales et les opérateurs privés, comme cadre de financement et de gestion des infrastructures de production et de distribution d’eau potable.
Art. 5. Les ressources en eau sont allouées en priorité à l’alimentation en eau des populations. (...)

Art. 6. Les ressources en eaux superficielles, souterraines ou atmosphériques, où qu’elles soient situées dans les limites du territoire national, sont un bien collectif et, à ce titre, font partie intégrante du domaine public de l’Etat qui est inaliénable et imprescriptible.
Morocco



Loi n° 10-95 sur l'eau
Art. 1er. L'eau est un bien public et ne peut faire l'objet d'appropriation privée sous réserve des dispositions du chapitre II ci-après: Le droit à l'usage de l'eau est accordé dans les conditions fixées par la présente loi.

Art. 86. En cas de pénurie d’eau due à la surexploitation ou à des événements exceptionnels tels que sécheresses, calamités naturelles ou force majeure, l’administration déclare l’état de pénurie, définit la zone sinistrée et édicte les réglementations locales et temporaires ayant pour objet d’assurer en priorité l’alimentation en eau des populations et l’abreuvage des animaux.
Mozambique



Lei de Aguas (lei n° 16/91 de 3 de Agosto 1991)
Art. 1. - Proprietade das aguas
1. As águas interiores, as superficiais e os respectivos leitos, as subterrâneas, quer brotem naturalmente ou nãõ, são propriedade do Estado, constituindo domínio público hídrico.

Art. 8. - Orientações da politica de gestão de águas
Ao Estado competirá implementar, progressivemanente nas regiões definidas como de intervenção prioritária, uma política des gestão de águas orientada para a realização dos seguintes objectivos:
b) Abastecimento contínuo e suficiente das populações em água potável, para a satisfação das necessidades dométicas e de higiene;

Art. 26. - Prioridade dos aproveitamentos privativos
1. O abastecimento de água à populaçào, para consumo humano e para satisfação das necessidades sanitárias, tem prioridade sobre os demais usos privativos.
Namibia
Water resources management act of 2004 (Act n° 24 of 2004)
Fundamental principles
3. This Act must be interpreted, and be reasonably and fairly applied, in a manner that is consistent with and promotes the following fundamental principles -
(a) equitable access to water resources by every citizen, in support of a healthy and productive life;
(b) access by every citizen, within a reasonable distance from their place of abode, to a quantity of water sufficient to maintain life, health and productive activities;
(c) essentiality of water in life, and safe drinking water a basic human right;


Ownership and management of water resources

4. Subject to this Act -

(a) ownership of water resources in Namibia below and above the surface of the land belongs to the State;


Reliability of water supply

26. (1) The Minister must ensure that all Namibians are provided with an affordable and a reliable water supply that is adequate for basic human needs.

Reservation of water resources
27.(1) The Minister, with the concurrence of the regional councils concerned, may in the prescribed manner reserve part or all of the flow of a watercourse, including any groundwater resource and the water stored in a public reservoir to -(a) meet the domestic use of the water users concerned;

Abstraction of water for domestic use
28.(1) Subject to subsection (3), a person who abstracts water from a water resource for domestic use is exempted from the acquisition of a licence to abstract and use water.

Right to collect meteoric water
31. A person has the right to collect meteoric water collected on his or her own land or the communal land for domestic use.



Niger



Loi portant régime de l'eau (ordonnance n° 93-014 du 2 mars 1993)
Art. 7. L'objectif premier de l'Etat, dans ce domaine, est de mettre à la disposition de chacun de l'eau en quantité suffisante et de bonne qualité.

Art. 9. En période de grande sécheresse, l'Autorité Locale peut interdire les activités grandes consommatrices d'eau et non directement destinées à la consommation humaine, notamment l'arrosage des jardins d'agrément, le remplissage et la vidange des piscines, le lavage des véhicules.
Nigeria

National Water Policy 2004
5.3.3 Principles
The guiding principles of the National Water Resources Policy are:  There shall be no ownership of water but only a right (for environmental and basic human needs) or an authorisation for its use. Any authorisation to use water in terms of the water law shall not be in perpetuity.

Water Resources Decree 1993, Decree n° 101
Rights to take and use of water

Art. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1 of this Decree-
(a) any person -
(i) may take water without charge for his domestic purpose or for watering his livestock from any water course to which the public has free access; 
(ii) may use water for the purpose of fishing or for navigation to the extent that such use is not inconsistent with any other law for the time being in force; or
(iii) who, has a statutory or customary right of occupancy to any land, may take and use water from the underground water source or if abutting on the bank of any water course, from that water course, without charge for domestic purposes, for watering livestock and for personal irrigation schemes.
Rwanda


National policy for Water Resource Management (2011)
4.2. The human right to water

International and regional human rights instruments, including the international Declaration on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights have given recognition to the right to water as a fundamental human right, which must progressively be realized by all countries. This means that in allocating water resources account must be taken of the needs of all water users.
Given that available water resources are limited and that not all demands can be met to the full extent, available water resources shall be shared on the principle of “some for all” (rather than “all for some”),which is an expression of the principle of equitable access among present generations. This is one of the “The New Delhi Principles” articulated at Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s, New Delhi, 1990.

The human right to water means that everyone is entitled to a share of the limited resources available, with priority being given to uses which give effect to the right of access to a basic supply. This is particularly so because water is essential to sustaining life. In this respect theNational Policy and Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation Services has the objective of ensuring that by 2020 all Rwandans will have access to a basic supply of water.
Water and  sanitation policy (2004)
3.3 Principles of the sector policy
The water and sanitation sector -based policy is based on the following principles:
- Each person has right to access to water services.

3.6 Sector objectives
(i) General Objective
The overall objective of the sector is to improve the living conditions of the population through optimal use of water resources and access of all to water and sanitation services.

Law n° 62/2008 of 10/09/2008 putting in place the use, conservation, protection and management of water resources regulations
Art. 3. General principles

Water is a good belonging to the State public domain. Its use constitutes a recognized right in force to all in the scope of laws and regulation in use.

Art. 7. Priority in water distribution

The supply of water to the populations shall be the priority in the distribution of water resources. The supply of water to animals shall constitute the second priority as well as the hydroelectric energy production.
Water resources management sub-sector strategic plan (2011-2015)
3. GOVERNMENT OF RWANDA’S STRATEGIC VISION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR IWRM

Water as a basic human right: Access to safe drinking water and living in a clean  environment is now universally recognized as a human right guaranteed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and in the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC). The MDGs probably represent the most visible proof of global recognition and commitment to improved sanitation as a key element of poverty reduction. Rwanda has
demonstrated commitment to achieving the MDG targets as reflected in the progress made thus far.
Sao Tome and Principe



pas de loi ou politique générale, mais un ensemble limité de lois et réglementations dispersées

Plan Directeur des systèmes de l'eau et assainissement (texte non accessible)
Senegal



Loi n° 81-13 du 4 mars 1981 portant Code de l’eau

Exposé des motifs

Le principe essentiel entre tous est celui de la domanialité publique des eaux, qui fait de cette ressource un bien commun à tous.
Art. 2. Les ressources hydrauliques font partie intégrante du domaine public. Ces ressources sont un bien collectif et leur mise en exploitation sur le territoire nationale est soumise à autorisation préalable et à contrôle.

Art. 75. L’allocation des ressources en eau doit à tout moment tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations
L’alimentation en eau des populations demeure dans tout les cas l’élément prioritaire dans l’allocation des ressources en eau.

Loi n° 2009-24 du 8 juillet 2009 portant Code de l’Assainissement.

Seychelles



aucunes données
Sierra Leone



Water control and supply act of 1963 (Water act en construction)

Water Company Act 2001 (Act n° 6 of 2001)

National water and sanitation policy 2010 (texte non accessible)

Somalia



Somalia : Project of draft regional policy and legal framework for water resources management (draft water act)

Somaliland national water law n° 49/2011 (en somalien)

Somaliland draft water act 2004
Art. 4. - General purposes of National Water Act
4.1 The purposes of this Water Act shall be to improve availability and access to water in a sustainable and equitable way for all different types of uses, in a manner that is environmentally safe. (...)
Art. 9. - Public ownership and co-ownership
9.1 Ownership of natural water resources is vested in the Somaliland State as a trustee for the citizens of Somaliland.


Art. 10. - Private ownership and limitations
10.1 There shall be no private ownership of a natural water resource such as an aquifer, a lake or swamp, or a watercourse.

Comment: natural water resources are considered as a public good, vested in the State

Art. 57 - Common use of surface water and limitations
57.1 There shall be no permission required for use of natural surface water resources provided that the water withdrawal is restricted to the domestic water use, and that no actions or works that modify its natural flow are implemented.

Somaliland draft national water policy 2004
Section A. Context: I. Holistic approach
VII. WATER RIGHTS Access to water sources is traditionally free in Somaliland, and water for immediate human consumption cannot be refused and should not be charged.
Section B. Policy objectives and principles
I. OBJECTIVES OF THE WATER POLICY
Main goal of the water sector development: to improve availability and access to water in a sustainable and equitable way for all different types of uses, in a manner that is environmentally safe.

II. WATER SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC USE
Water for human consumption is a priority in Somaliland. Given that groundwater is the safest resource that can be used for human consumption, the policy is to focus on groundwater resources for the development of water supply for human consumption.  (...)
South Africa
Water services act (Act 108 of 1997)
PREAMBLE
RECOGNIZING the rights of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation necessary to ensure sufficient water and an environment not harmful to health or
well-being;

Main objects of Act
Art. 2. The main objects of this Act are to provide for— 50
(a) the right of access to basic water supply and the right to basic sanitation necessary to secure sufficient water and an  environment not harmful to human
health or well-being;

Right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation
Art. 3. ( 1 ) Everyone has a right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation.
(2) Every water services institution must take reasonable measures to realise these rights.
(3) Every water services authority  must, in its water  services development plan
provide for measures to realise these rights.
(4) The rights mentioned in this section are subject to the limitations contained in this Act.


National water act (Act 36 of 1998)
Public trusteeship of nation's water resources
Art. 3. (1) As the public trustee of the nation's water resources the National Government, acting through the Minister, must ensure that water is protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in a sustainable and equitable manner, for the benefit of all persons and in accordance with its constitutional mandate.
(2) Without limiting subsection (1), the Minister is ultimately responsible to ensure that water is allocated equitably and used beneficially in the public interest, while promoting environmental values.
(3) The National Government, acting through the Minister, has the power to regulate the use, flow and control of all water in the Republic.
Entitlement to water use
Art. 4. (1) A person may use water in or from a water resource for purposes such as reasonable domestic use, domestic gardening, animal watering, fire fighting and recreational use, as set out in Schedule 1.

Permissible water use
Art. 22. (1) A person may only use water -
(a) without a licence -
(i) if that water use is permissible under Schedule 1;

Schedule 1 PERMISSIBLE USE OF WATER
[Sections 4(1) and 22(1)(a)(i) and Item 2 of Schedule 3]
(1) A person may, subject to this Act -
(a) take water for reasonable domestic use in that person's household, directly from any
water resource to which that person has lawful access;
(b) take water for use on land owned or occupied by that person, for -
(i) reasonable domestic use;
(ii) small gardening not for commercial purposes; and
(iii) the watering of animals (excluding feedlots) which graze on that land within the grazing capacity of that land, from any water resource which is situated on or forms a boundary of that land, if the use is not excessive in relation to the capacity of the water resource and the needs of other users;
(c) store and use run-off water from a roof;
(d) in emergency situations, take water from any water resource for human consumption or firefighting;
National water policy review (notice 888 of 2013)
Sudan

Water supply and sanitation policy 2010
2. Water supply and environmental sanitation policy outlines
2.2. The objective of the water supply and environmental sanitation policy is to ensure adequate and sustainable domestic water supply and Environmental sanitation services and hygienic practices for all rural, urban and nomadic people of the northern states of Sudan.(...)

2.3. Among the main guiding principles applied for the this policy are the importance of water for life; water as a human right; (...)

4.3. Guiding principles for provision of water supply services
4.3.2. Access to safe water is a fundamental human right for human and animal in line with article (?) of the Interim National Constitution of Sudan.

4.3.5. In normal situation the priority for water use shall be accorded to the personal use of  water for drinking, cooking food, and personal hygiene, while in the case of drought and emergency situation supply of water for drinking shall be given the highest priority among other water uses.

Water resources act 1995 (texte non accessible)

South Sudan

Water policy 2007
2.3 General
principles (...) The following general principles of GOSS Water Policy therefore provide a guiding
framework for all water sector activities and an important point of reference for future development of more detailed implementation strategies:
2.3.1 Water is an important natural resource which is commonly owned by all riparian people.
2.3.2 The Government of South Sudan has a duty to ensure effective  development and use of water resources  for the benefit of all, including poor and vulnerable groups.
2.3.3 Access to sufficient water of acceptable quality to satisfy basic needs is considered a human right and shall be given highest priority in development of water resources.


Swaziland



Water act (Act n° 7 of 2003)
Interpretation

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise provides:
"use for primary purpose" means the use of water for domestic requirements, sanitation, the watering of animals not exceeding 30 head of cattle or the irrigation of land not exceeding one-quarter hectare adjoining or occupied with a homestead of not more than 10 persons but does not include the use of water by a local authority for distribution to the inhabitants of the area;
The Right in Water

Art. 34. (1) All water found naturally in Swaziland is hereby declared a national resource.
(2) There shall be no private right of property in any water found naturally in Swaziland.
(3) A right to divert, store, or use water shall not be acquired by prescription.
(4) It shall not be necessary for any person or community to obtain a permit for the use of water for primary purposes.
Tanzania

Water supply and sanitation act 2009 (Act n° 12 of 2009)

Art. 4. (1) The objective of this Act is to promote and ensure the right of every person in Tanzania to have access to efficient, effective and sustainable water supply and sanitation services for all purposes by taking into account the following principles, namely - (...)
Water resources management act 2009 (Act n° 11 of 2009)
Art. 4. (1) The objective of this Act is to ensure that the nation's water resources are
protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in ways which take into account the following fundamental principles, including -
(a) meeting the basic human needs of present and future generations;
(b) promoting equitable access to water and the principle that water is essential for life and that safe drinking water is a basic human right;
National water policy 2002
SECTION I: WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

4.1 Water Resources Allocation, Use and Socio-Economic Considerations

4.1.1 Water as a common use resource Laws and Regulations will be put in place to ensure that, like many other natural resources, by constitution and law, all the water in the country is vested in the United Republic of Tanzania and every citizen has an equal right to access and use of the nation's natural water resources for his and the nations benefit.
SECTION II: RURAL WATER SUPPLY

3.1 Social Principles

Water is a basic need and right

Recognizing that access to clean and safe water is a basic need and right for all human beings, efficient management and equitable use of water in the rural areas will be promoted.

Use of water for human consumption shall receive first priority

In the provision of water supply and sanitation services water required to meet basic human needs shall enjoy priority number one of use by right.


Togo
Loi n° 2010 - 004 du 14 juin 2010 portant Code de I'eau
Art. 3. Le présent code adhère aux principes de base de la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau que sont notamment :
1. Principe d'équité, c'est-a-dire le traitement équitable de toutes les catégories sociales de la population vis-a-vis de I'eau, incluant le droit d'acces à I'eau pour tous, I'équité dans la repartition de I'eau à des fins domestiques ou productive en tenant compte des dispositions prises pour la protection et la conservation des ressources en eau ;
Art. 5. L'eau fait partie du domaine public.

Art. 12. L'utilisation libre est celle qui peut être exercée sans déclaration, autorisation ou concession.
Est libre I'utilisation des eaux a des fins domestiques, limitée à la satisfaction des besoins individuels et familiaux, à I'hygiene des personnes, des habitations et des animaux domestiques et à I'arrosage des jardins, à condition que la profondeur de captage, la capacité de puisage et le volume d'eau prelevé ne dépassent pas les seuils arrêtés par le ministre chargé de I'Eau.

Art. 43. En cas de pénurie d'eau, le ministre chargé de I'Eau peut interdire certaines activités grandes consommatrices d'eau, notamment I'arrosage des jardins et terrains de golf, le remplissage des piscines, le lavage des véhicules.

Art. 71. Au sens du présent code, I'eau destinée a la consommation humaine comprend :
- I'eau destinée à la boisson et aux usages domestiques ;
- I'eau destinée à la fabrication de boissons et de la glace ;
- I'eau destinée à la préparation, au conditionnement ou à la conservation de denrées alimentaires.

Art. 110. L'approvisionnement en eau potable des populations demeure I'élément prioritaire dans la répartition des ressoudes en eau. (...)






Tunisia



Loi n°16-75 du 31 mars 1975 portant promulgation du Code des eaux
rien sur priorité d'usage
Uganda



Water statute 1995
Art. 4. The objectives of the Statute are- (b) to promote the provision of a clean, safe and sufficient supply of water for domestic purposes to all persons;

Art. 7. (1) Subject to Section 8 a person may
(a) while temporarily at any place; or
(b) being the occupier of or a resident on any land, where there is a natural source of water, use that water for domestic use, fighting fire or irrigating a subsistence garden.
National Water Policy 1999
Zambia



Water resources management act 2011 (Act n° 21 of 2011)
Art. 2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“ domestic or non-commercial purposes ” means the household
use of water for—
(a) drinking, cooking, washing, bathing or sanitation;
(b) subsistence gardening and support of livestock not being commercial livestock husbandry;
(c) subsistence fishing;
(d) the making of bricks for the private use of the occupier;
(e) the dipping of livestock not being commercial livestock husbandry; or
(f) firefighting; for which no permit is required for the use of that water under this Act;
“ reserve ” in relation to a water resource, means the quantity
and quality of water required to—
(a) satisfy basic human needs of all the people who are, or may be, supplied from the water resource; and
(b) protect aquatic ecosystems in order to secure ecologically sustainable development and use of
the water resource;


Art. 3. Subject to this Act and notwithstanding any other law, instrument or document, all water, in its natural state, in Zambia vests in the President and is held by the President on behalf and benefit of the people of Zambia.
Art. 4. Notwithstanding any other law, a person shall not own any water, in its natural state, in Zambia and no property in such water shall be acquired.

Art. 6. The management of water resources in Zambia shall be governed by the following principles—
(b) water is a basic human need and as such domestic and non-commercial needs shall enjoy priority of allocation use;


Art. 62. (1) Subject to this Act, any person may use water for domestic and non-commercial purposes, except that such use shall not be construed as conferring on that person a right, which that person would not otherwise possess, to enter or occupy any land for the purposes of using any water.
(2) A person shall not require a permit for the use of water for domestic and non-commercial purposes, except as otherwise provided under this Act.
Water supply and sanitation act 1997 (Act n° 28 of 1997)
Art. 10 - Obligation to provide water supply and sanitation services
(1) Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary and subject to the other provision of this Act, a local authority shall provide water supply and sanitation services to the area falling under its jurisdiction, except in any area where a person provides such services solely for that person's own benefit or a utility or a service provider is providing such services.
Zimbabwe



Water act 1998 (Act n° 31 of 1998, Chapter  20:24)

Art. 3. - Water vested in President
Subject to this Act, all water is vested in the President.
Art. 2. - interpretation(1) In this act -
“primary purposes,” in relation to the use of water, means the reasonable use of water—
(a) for basic domestic human needs in or about the area of residential premises; or
(b) for the support of animal life, other than fish in fish farms or animals or poultry in feedlots;
(c) for the making of bricks for the private use of the owner, lessee or occupier of the land concerned; or
(d) for dip tanks;
Art. 32. - Use of water for primary purposes
(1) Subject to section thirty-three and Part IX, any person may abstract water for primary purposes:
Provided that this subsection shall not be construed as conferring on any person a right, which he would not otherwise possess, to enter or occupy any land for the purpose of abstracting the water.
Art. 34. - Application for permit
(1) No person shall abstract water for any purpose other than primary purposes except in terms of a permit.


Art. 51. - Certain permits to enjoy preference over other rights to use water
(1) No permits granted by a catchment council, other than permits for the use of water granted to a local authority for primary purposes, shall have the effect of
depriving—
(a) persons of the use of water for primary purposes; or
(b) an owner of land on which there is a permanent pool of the use for primary purposes of water in the permanent pool.

National water authority act 1998 (Act n° 11 of 1998, Chapter  20:25)



Le droit à l'eau et les législations africaines

Lois nationales des pays africains sur l'accès à l'eau
Florence Higuet, IERPE, Belgium
Published: 4 years, 1 month ago (11/19/2013)
Updated: 3 years, 3 months ago (09/08/2014)
Le tableau ci-dessous est le résultat d'une recherche poussée sur les lois ayant trait au secteur de l'eau, et plus particulièrement à l'approvisionnement ou la distribution en eau, de chaque pays africain. Le but de la recherche était de  repérer quelle(s) loi(s) reconnaisse(nt) le droit humain à l'eau. Nous ne sommes donc pas concentrés sur le droit humain à l'assainissement ; bien souvent, c'est deux matières font l'objet de réglementations différentes. A côté des lois sur l'eau - il s'agit le plus souvent de 'Code de l'eau' -, nous avons analysé également les 'politiques' ("policy") sur l'eau, certains pays africains ne disposant pas d'une loi générale sur l'eau.
Pour quelques pays, les recherches ont été particulièrement compliquées et nous n'avons pas pu mettre la main sur les lois et/ou politiques portant sur l'eau et son approvisionnement.

Le tableau est divisé en trois colonnes :
- une sur la reconnaissance du droit à l'eau dans les lois ;
- une autre sur la reconnaissance du droit dans une politique ou un programme d'action ;
- et enfin, dans une troisième colonne, nous avons repris des éléments ayant trait à l'accès à l'eau et portant principalement sur la propriété de l'eau et sur les priorités dans les usages de l'eau.

Premier constat : à l'heure actuelle, dix pays africains reconnaissent le droit à l'eau dans leur loi nationale sur l'eau.

Pays
Reconnaissance explicite du droit humain à l'eau  dans une loi
Recconnaissance explicite du droit humain à l'eau dans une politique ou un programme d'action

Autres éléments et/ou lois liés à l'accès à l'eau pour les usages domestiques
Afrique du Sud
Water services act (Act 108 of 1997)
PREAMBLE
RECOGNIZING the rights of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation necessary to ensure sufficient water and an environment not harmful to health or
well-being;

Main objects of Act
Art. 2. The main objects of this Act are to provide for— 50
(a) the right of access to basic water supply and the right to basic sanitation necessary to secure sufficient water and an  environment not harmful to human
health or well-being;

Right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation
Art. 3. ( 1 ) Everyone has a right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation.
(2) Every water services institution must take reasonable measures to realise these rights.
(3) Every water services authority  must, in its water  services development plan
provide for measures to realise these rights.
(4) The rights mentioned in this section are subject to the limitations contained in this Act.




National water act (Act 36 of 1998)
Public trusteeship of nation's water resources
Art. 3. (1) As the public trustee of the nation's water resources the National Government, acting through the Minister, must ensure that water is protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in a sustainable and equitable manner, for the benefit of all persons and in accordance with its constitutional mandate.
(2) Without limiting subsection (1), the Minister is ultimately responsible to ensure that water is allocated equitably and used beneficially in the public interest, while promoting environmental values.
(3) The National Government, acting through the Minister, has the power to regulate the use, flow and control of all water in the Republic.
Entitlement to water use
Art. 4. (1) A person may use water in or from a water resource for purposes such as reasonable domestic use, domestic gardening, animal watering, fire fighting and recreational use, as set out in Schedule 1.

Permissible water use
Art. 22. (1) A person may only use water -
(a) without a licence -
(i) if that water use is permissible under Schedule 1;

Schedule 1 PERMISSIBLE USE OF WATER
[Sections 4(1) and 22(1)(a)(i) and Item 2 of Schedule 3]
(1) A person may, subject to this Act -
(a) take water for reasonable domestic use in that person's household, directly from any
water resource to which that person has lawful access;
(b) take water for use on land owned or occupied by that person, for -
(i) reasonable domestic use;
(ii) small gardening not for commercial purposes; and
(iii) the watering of animals (excluding feedlots) which graze on that land within the grazing capacity of that land, from any water resource which is situated on or forms a boundary of that land, if the use is not excessive in relation to the capacity of the water resource and the needs of other users;
(c) store and use run-off water from a roof;
(d) in emergency situations, take water from any water resource for human consumption or firefighting;
National water policy review (notice 888 of 2013)
Algérie

Loi n° 05-12 du  4 août 2005 relative à l'eau 

Art. 3. Les principes sur lesquels se fondent l'utilisation, la gestion et le développement durable des ressources en eau sont :— le droit d’accès à l'eau et à l'assainissement pour satisfaire les besoins fondamentaux de la population dans le respect de l'équité et des règles fixées par la présente loi, en matière de services publics de l'eau et de l'assainissement ;



Angola




Lei de Águas n° 6/02 de 21 de Junho de 2002
Art. 5. - Propriedade das águas
(1) As águas, objecto da presente lei, como um recurso natural,
são propriedade do Estado, constituindo parte do domínio público hídrico.
(2) O direito do Estado relativo às águas, enquanto recurso natural, inalienável e imprescritível.
(3) O direito ao uso do domínio público hídrico é concebido de modo a garantir a sua preservação e gestão em benefício do interesse público.
Art. 9. - Princípios de gestão de águas
(1) A gestão das águas rege-se pelos princípios seguintes:
a) Do direito de cidadão e entidades colectivas à água; (...)
i) Da complementaridade do abastecimento de água com o saneamento residual líquido;
Art. 10. - Objectivos das políticas de gestão de águas
(2) Ao Estado compte implementar, em todo o território nacional e respeitando os Princípios de Gestão de Águas, políticas de gestão orientadas para a realização dos seguientes objectivos:
a) Garantir ao cidadão e entidades colectivas o acasso e uso da água;
d) Abastecer as populações de forma contínua e suficiente em água potável, para satisfação das suas necessidades domésticas e de higiene;
g) Garantir o adequado saneamento das águas residuas e regular o lançamento de efluentes;
Art. 21. - Realização do direito de acesso à água
O direito de acesso à água é realizado atravès dos usos comuns e privativos.
Art. 22. - Classificação de usos
(1) As águas, quanto ao uso, classificam-se em águas de uso comum e águas de uso privativo, sendo o uso comum aquele que resulta da lei e que se realiza sob condição natural, sem formalidades contratuais ou administratives, e o uso privativo auqel que requer uma licença ou concessão, á excepção do diposto no Artigo 26° da prensete lei.
(2) O uso comun tem prioridade sobre o uso privativo.
Art. 23. - Usos comuns
(1) Usos comuns são os que visam satisfazer necessidades domésticas, pessoais e familiares do utilizador, incluindo o abeberamento de gado e rega de culturas de subsistência, sem fins estritamente comerciais.
(2) Os usos comuns das águas são gratuitos el ivres, e realizam-se de acordo com o regime tradicional de utilização das águas, sem alterar significativamente o seu caudal nem a sua qualidade.
(3) Os usos comuns realizam-se sem necessidade de licenciamento ou concessão, cabedo à instituição respoñsável pela gestão dos recursos hídricos da bacia e demais entidades competentes proceder ao seu reconhecimento e promover o respectivo inventário. (...)
Art. 26. - Uso decorrente do direito de explora ção da terra
(1) Os titulares do direito ao uso e aproveitamento da terra, a fim de satisfazer suas necessidades domésticas e as necessidades normais e previsíveis da agricultura, podem, sem licenciamento e a título gratuito, nos termos do regulamento, utilizar: (...)

Art. 33. - Subordinação de prioridade dos usos privativos
(2) O abastecimento de água à população, para consumo humano e satisfação das necessidades sanitárias, tem prioridade sobre os demais usos privativos.
Water sector development strategy 2003-2016
Bénin
Loi n° 2010-44 du 24 nov. 2010 portant gestion de l'eau
Art. 6.  Chaque citoyen béninois a le droit de disposer de I'eau pour ses besoins et les exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Art. 17. L'eau, élément du patrimoine commun  national, fait partie du domaine public.



Botswana



Water Act (1968, Chapter 34:01, consolidated version of 31-12-2008)
Art. 5. - Casual use of water in a public strea comptentesm, etc.
Any person may, without a water right, while he is at any place where he has lawful access to a public stream or to a natural lake, pan or swamp, take and use public water therein for the immediate purpose of- (a) watering stock;(b) drinking, washing and cooking; or(c) use in a vehicle,but nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing the construction of any works.
Burkina-Faso

Loi n° 002-2001/an portant loi d'orientation relative à la gestion de l'eau 

Art. 2. La loi reconnaît le droit de chacun à disposer de l'eau correspondant à ses besoins et aux exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Le Ministre chargé de l'eau, le Ministre chargé des affaires sociales et le Ministre chargé de la santé proposent et mettent en œuvre, dans le respect de leurs attributions respectives, en liaison avec les autres autorités publiques compétentes et les personnes privées intervenant dans le domaine de l'eau, les mesures nécessaires à l'exercice de ce droit.

Art. 5. L’eau est un élément du patrimoine commun de la Nation. Elle fait partie du domaine public.



Burundi



Loi n° 1/02 du 26 mars 2012 portant Code de l'eau
Art. 2. La gestion et l'utilisation de l'eau sont fondées essentiellement sur les principes suivants:
4° Principe de solidarité
La population est au centre de toutes les actions à entreprendre dans la gestion et l'utilisation des ressources en eau.
Des mesures doivent être prises pour permettre aux pauvres et autres groupes vulnérables d'avoir  accès au service d'eau et d'assainissement à un prix abordable.
Art. 66. Les eaux usées domestiques, notamment des eaux ménagères des cuisines, des eaux de vannes ainsi que des effluents des fosses septiques, ne peuvent pas être déversées dans les canalisations ou égouts servant à l'évacuation des eaux pluviales ou encore directement dans les cours d'eaux et les lacs.

Art. 84, § 2. Néanmoins, le prélèvement et l'utilisation de l'eau du domaine public hydraulique à des fins domestiques peuvent être librement pratiqués.
Art. 85. Sont considérés comme affectés à des fins domestiques, au sens du présent titre, le prélèvement et l'utilisation de l'eau destinée exclusivement à la satisfaction des besoins des personnes physiques dans les limites des quantités d'eau nécessaires à l'alimentation humaine, aux soins d'hygiène, au lave et aux productions végétales ou animales réservées à la consommation familiale de ces personnes.
Art. 86. Le Ministre ayant la gestion de l'eau dans ses attributions peut exceptionnellement prendre des mesures de limitation ou de suspension provisoire des usages de l'eau visés à l'article 85, pour faire face à une menace ou aux conséquences d'accidents, de sécheresse, d'inondations ou à un risque grave de pénurie.
Art. 89. L'usage de l'eau est régi par l'ordre de priorité fixé par le Gouvernement en fonction des spécificités locales ou régionales des besoins écologiques. L'établissement de ces priorités porte notamment sur :
la satisfaction des besoins de l'alimentation en eau potable de la population et de l'abreuvement du bétail ;
Cameroun



Loi n° 98-005 du 14 avr. 1998 portant régime de l'eau
Art. 2. (1) L’eau est un bien du patrimoine commun de la Nation dont l’Etat assure la
protection et la gestion et en facilite l’accès à tous.
Cap-Vert



Lei nº 41/II/84 de 18 de Junho 1984 

Art. 3. - Princípio da dominialidade pública
1. Todos os recursos hídricos pertencem ao domínio público do Estado.
2. Pertencem igualmente ao domínio público do Estado as obras hidráulicas realizadas por pessoas colectivas de direito público, as revertidas ao Est ado por extinção das respectivas concessões e, em geral, as destinadas a uso público ou colectivo.

Art. 7. - Benefício da colectividad
A gestão dos recursos hídricos deve visar a obtenção de máximo benefício da colectividade, assegurando, paralelamente, o desenvolvimento e a conservação desses recursos, em condições de utilização racional.

Art. 59. - Prioridades
1. O abastecimento da população em água potável e para fins domésticos é prioritário. 2. A ordem de prioridades dos restantes usos da água será fixada pelo Conselho Nacional de Águas, para cada circunscrição hidrográfica, em conformidade com as orientações do Plano Nacional de Desenvolvimento e em função da importância sócio-económica da circunscrição.

Art. 61. - Casos de dispensa de autorização É livre, não carecendo por isso de autorização, o uso de: a) Águas para consumo individual e fins domésticos, provenientes de qualquer tipo de captação ou reservatórios públicos a tal destinado;

Art. 87. - Obstáculos ao consumo humano As acções dolosas que visem impedir ou dificultar o uso da água para o consumo humano são puníveis com pena de prisão de seis meses a dois anos.
République centrafricaine

Loi n° 06.001 du 12 avr. 2006 portant Code de l'eau 

Art. 6.  L’eau fait partie du domaine public hydraulique. Sa mobilisation, sa gestion, sa mise en valeur et sa protection doivent s’effectuer dans le respect des équilibres naturels et de l’intérêt général.
Elle ne peut faire l’objet d’appropriation que dans les conditions déterminées par les Lois et règlements en vigueur.

Art. 40. La Loi reconnaît à chaque citoyen le droit de disposer de l’eau correspondant à ses besoins et aux exigences élémentaires de sa vie et de sa dignité.
Le Ministre en charge de l’eau propose et met en œuvre en liaison avec les autorités publiques compétentes, les mesures nécessaires à l’exercice de ce droit.

Art. 44. L’alimentation en eau potable de la population demeure la priorité dans la répartition des ressources en eau.(...)



Comores



Loi n° 94-037 du 21 déc. 1994 portant Code de l'eau 

TITRE I - EAUX NATURELLES
L'eau douce, ressource naturelle renouvelable, fait partie du patrimoine national dont l'Etat est responsable envers la collectivité. (...)
République du Congo



Loi n° 13-2003 du 10 avr. 2003 portant Code de l'eau 
Art. 9. Le domaine public hydraulique est affecté de manière prioritaire en vue de satisfaire les besoins suivants :
- alimentation en eau potable de la population;
- abreuvement du cheptel et autres besoins de l'agriculture;
- besoins de l'industrie.
République Démocratique du Congo



Pas une loi générale sur l'eau, mais une douzaine d'ordonnances et de décrets encadrant le secteur de l'eau. Un avant-projet de loi portant Code de l'eau est en cours de révision et d'adoption par le Parlement.
Côte d'Ivoire



Loi n° 98-755 du 23 Décembre 1998 portant Code de l’eau
Art. 7. L’eau fait partie du patrimoine commun national.
Sa protection, sa mobilisation et sa mise en valeur, dans le respect des équilibres naturels, sont d’intérêt général.
Elle ne peut faire l’objet d’appropriation que dans les conditions déterminées par les dispositions de la présente loi.

Art. 60. L’Etat garantit :
l’approvisionnement en eau potable, la protection, la conservation et la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau, la satisfaction des autres besoins. (...)

Art. 70. L’alimentation en eau des populations demeure, dans tous les cas, l’élément prioritaire dans la répartition des ressources en eau.
L’allocation des ressources en eau doit, à tout moment, tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations.
Djibouti



Loi n°93/AN/95/3ème L du 4 avr. 1996 portant Code de l'eau
Art. 1er. Les dispositions du présent code ont pour objet la protection du milieu aquatique, la préservation de la ressource commune en eau et la conciliation dans l'intérêt de tous des différents usages. Elles visent à permettre une gestion équilibrée de la ressource, son utilisation raisonnable et équitable et l'harmonisation des règles qui en régissent l'usage par les personnes publiques ou privées de manière à : 
2) assurer l'alimentation en eau potable de la population et protéger contre toute pollution de la qualité des eaux, en particulier, souterraine; 
Egypte



aucunes données
Erythrée



Eritrean Water Proclamation n° 162/2010 of 23 August 2010
(texte non accessible)
Ethiopie



Water resources management policy 1999
1.3 Fundamental principles of water resources management policy

The following are the fundamental policy principles that guide the equitable, sustainable and efficient development, utilization, conservation and protection of water resources in Ethiopia.
1. Water is a natural endowment commonly owned by all the peoples of Ethiopia.
2.
As far as conditions permit, every Ethiopian citizen shall have access to sufficient water of acceptable quality, to satisfy basic human needs.

2.1 General water resources management policu
2.1.1 General

The general policies are to:
10. As much as conditions permit, ensure that the provision of basic necessities of water at the household level are fulfilled and to ensure that all other allocations of water after the basic needs shall be based on equitable and efficient socio-economic development criteria.
12. Although all water resources development ought to be based on the "economic value" of water, the provision of water supply services, to the underprivileged sectors of the population, shall be ensured based on a special "Social Strategy".


2.2 Policy on cross-cutting issues
2.2.1 Water allocation and apportionment
1. Recognize that the basic minimum requirement, as the reserve (basic human and livestock needs, as well as environment reserve) has the highest priority in any water allocation plan. 2. Ensure that water allocation gives highest priority to water supply and sanitation while apportioning the rest for uses and users that result in highest socio-economic benefits.
Gabon



Loi n° 8/93, du 7 avr. 1993,

fixant le régime juridique de la production, du transport, de la distribution de l'énergie électrique et de l'eau potable (texte non accessible)

Gambie



Draft national water resources bill 2004 (National water resources act en cours d'adoption)

National water policy 2006
Chapter 1 Policy overview
1.1 Principles

1.1.2 (...)The Presidents Office has endorsed the Policy and the underpinning principles, which entail a realisation, and acknowledgement of the need to:
1. Meet basic water needs in a sustainable manner while conserving resources and preserving the environment for future generations
2. Maintain an equitable balance between universal access to water supplies and the needs of individual users (...)
1.2 Objectives

1.2.1 The overarching Policy objectives are the establishment of a manageable and inclusive water resources framework based on IWRM principles, and the promotion of an enabling environment enforced through the rule of law that:
1. Acknowledges that access to water is a common right, which is held in trust by the Government on behalf of the people of The Gambia (...)
Chapter 5 Water resources development and utilisation
5.1 Overview

5.1.1 Once the sustainable management of The Gambia’s water resources has been successfully accomplished they must be developed and utilised effectively. There is an explicit obligation on Government to provide public service water resources in a sustainable and equitable manner to its entire people. The most important of these water related obligations is clearly meeting basic potable water service needs. This is essential for developing human resources, building the economy and promoting a healthy and equitable society.
Ghana



National water policy 2007
1. Introduction and policy context
1.2 Policy formulation process
(...)
The policy is also set within our commitment to international obligations and protocols and to the broad guiding principles of water management.
The principles of fundamental rights of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs
• The principle of meeting the social needs for water as a priority while recognising the economic value of water and the goods and services it provides

2. Strategic actions of policy
2.2.2 Focus area 2- Access to water
Principles and challenges
The main principles and challenges include:
(i) the fundamental right of all people without discrimination to safe and adequate water to meet basic human needs;
(ii) ensuring a minimum water requirement for the maintenance of health and well-being is assured.

Water resources Commission Act, 1996 (Act n° 522)
Art. 12. The property in and control of all water resources is vested in the President on behalf of, and in trust for the people of Ghana. Art. 14. (1) A person who has lawful access to water resources may abstract and use such water for domestic purposes.
Water use regulations, 2001 (L.I. (Legislative instrument) 1692)
Water use permit
Art. 1. Subject to the Act, a person may obtain a permit from the Commission for:
(a) domestic water use

Priority of water use
Art. 7. (1) In considering an application, the Commission shall be guided by
(a) the prevailing water policy,
(b) domestic water use, and
(c) any other water use which fulfils the goals of national socio-economic development
(2) Where the  priorities of two applications are the same, the first in time shall be given the priority
Guinée

Loi n°L/94/ 005/CTRN du 15 févr. 1994 portant Code de l'eau

Art. 4. Les ressources en eau de la République de Guinée font partie intégrante du Domaine public naturel de l’Etat. En tant que telles, et sous réserve des dispositions du présent Code, elles ne sont pas susceptibles d’appropriation. Cependant elles peuvent faire l’objet d’un droit d’utilisation de nature précaire et limitée soumis au régime de l’autorisation préalable.

Art. 6. Sous réserve des dispositions de l’article 4 de la présente loi toute personne a un droit d’accès inaliénable aux ressources en eau et un droit de les utiliser à des fins domestiques.
Est considérée comme affectée à des fins domestiques, l’utilisation des ressources en eau destinée exclusivement à la satisfaction des besoins des personnes physiques dans les limites des quantités d’eau nécessaires à l’alimentation humaine, aux soins d’hygiène, au lavage et aux productions végétales ou animales réservées à la consommation familiale de ces personnes. Les droits visés au présent article comportent l’utilisation de l’eau extraite et contenue dans un réceptacle individuel ou collectif. Toutefois l’utilisateur est tenu d’exercer son droit de façon à préserver la disponibilité de la ressource en quantité et en qualité et à ne pas léser les autres utilisateurs.



Guinée-Bissau




Decreto-Lei n° 5-A/92 de 18 Setembro 1992 aprovo o Codigo de aguas
art. 3. - Da inalienabilidade
1. O dominio hidrico do Estado é inalienavel e imprescribivel e nao pode ser susceptivel a propriedade privada.
2. Os individus, as colectividades, as empresas publicas e privadas so podem obter direitos de utilizaçao segundo o presente Decreto-Lei.
3. O Estado reconhece e garante os direitos de uso tradictionais no ambito do presente Decreto-Lei e dos titulos regulamentares concedidos para sua execuçao.

art. 7, §  1. - Do uso livre
O proprietario ou usufrutuario dam terreno tem o direito de utilizar livremente a agua das chuvas que caiem no seu terreno, outras aguas do dominio publico, com vista a satisfaçao das necessidades domésticas, pessoais e familiaires dos utentes incluindo o abeberramento do gado e a rega da sua horta, con meios tradicionais e sem meios mecanicos.

 Art. 29. - Do saneamento
1. O saneamento dos centros populacionais tem por objectivos assegurar e evacuacao rapida e sem estagnaçao das aguas usa-das., domesticas e industriais, susceptivels de ter efeitos nocivos, e das aguas fluviais susceptiveis de submergir os locais habita-dos, em condicoes compariveta com as exigencias da saude publica e da salvaguarda do meio ambiente.
2. Nos centros populacionais equipardos com uma rede de asgotos, a ligaçao a rede colectiva das habitaçoes ou quaisquer estabelecimentos rejellando aguas e obrigatoria.
Guinée équatoriale



Ley 3/2007 das aguas y costas (avant-projet)
Art. 7. Todo propietario puede abrir libremente sin necesidad de autorizacion pozos para elevar aguas dentro de sus fincas para usos domésticos y necesidades ordinaras de la vida, aunque con ello resultasen menguadas las aguas de sus vecinos, debera, sin embargo, guardar la distancia minima de cinco metrosentre pozo y pozo, dentre de las poblaciones, y de quince metros en el campo, entre la nueva excavacion y los pozos, estanques, fuentes y acequiaspermanentes de los vecinos.

Art. 31, § 1. Mientras las aguas corran por sus cauces  naturales y públicos y no lo impida una concesión particular,todos podrán usar de ellas para beber,lavar ropas,vasijas y cualesquiera otros objetos,bañarse y abrevar o bañar ganado, con sujeción a las normas dictadas al efecto.

// Art. 32.
Art. 74. En los casos de escasez de agua, se establecen los siguientes principios:
1. Las aguas se aplicaran de preferencia a los usos domésticos, servicios publicos, abrevaderos, banos, y abasteciliento de sistemas de transporte;
Kenya



Water act, Act n° 8 of 2002
Art. 3. Every water resource is hereby vested in the State, subject to any rights of user granted by or under this Act or any other written law.

Art. 32 (2). The use of water for domestic purposes shall take precedence over the use of water for any other purpose, and the Authority may, in granting any permit, reserve such part of the quantity of water in a water resource as in its opinion is required for domestic purposes.
National water services strategy 2007-2015
Lesotho

Lesotho water and sanitation policy febr 2007
POLICY CONTEXT

Policy Objectives

The objectives of the Lesotho Water and Sanitation Policy (LWSP) are to promote: 2)Adequate and sustainable supply of potable water and sanitation services to all of the population of Lesotho;

Principles
The guiding principles of the Lesotho Water and Sanitation Policy are:
F. All the Basotho are entitled to have access to a sustainable supply of potable water and to the provision of basic sanitation services at an affordable cost;
Policy Statement 2 - Water Supply and Sanitation Services

Ensure access to a sustainable supply of potable water and basic sanitation services for all Basotho
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
18. Social good: water as a commodity to which social value is attached, arising from the fact that water is an essential building block for life, the universal right of al to have access to water is generally accepted.

Water act, Act n° 15 of 2008
Art. 4. - Ownership of Water Resources
The ownership of all water resources in Lesotho is vested in the Basotho Nation and held in trust by the King on behalf of the Basotho Nation.

Art. 5. - Use of water
(2) In the case of conflicting water use and if water is insufficient to cater for other uses, domestic use shall prevail and be given first preference over other uses.

Art. 13. - Determination of a reserve
(1) The Commissioner shall determine a reserve for all or part of water resources within the country.
(2) A reserve shall comprise
(a) the basic human needs reserve representing the quantity and quality of water resources required to satisfy the basic human needs of those dependent on the concerned water ressource;
Liberia

Water supply and sanitation policy april 2009
ForwardWater is life and sanitation dignity. Article 20 (a) of the Liberian Constitution proclaims that “No person shall be deprived of life”. Since water is life, it follows that nobody living in Liberia should be deprived of water. The Government of Liberia is a signatory to the Declaration of Human Rights and other United Nations Declarations which ensure that all human beings have the right to life and dignity. Among these rights are the right to safe drinking water and the right to live in dignity in ones country of choiceTwo core human rights instruments — the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women — explicitly recognize the right to water. The latter also recognizes the importance of sanitation. In 2002, the United Nations formally declared access to domestic water supply a human right in and of itself, through General Comment No. 15 of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights..
1.1.3 Guiding principlesThe guiding principles of Liberia’s Water Supply and Sanitation Policy are based on a holistic approach incorporating considerations for equity, efficiency, environmental and service sustainability and recognize international WSS principles such as those articulated in the 1992 Dublin Principles. These guiding principles include:
5. Access to safe drinking water and sanitation is a basic human right.


Libye



Libyan Water Law n° 3 of 1982
(texte non accessible)
National water strategy 2000-2025
(texte non accessible)
Madagascar

Loi n°98-029 du 20 janv. 1999 portant Code de l'eau

Exposé des motifs

Le droit fondamental d'accès à l’Eau met notamment l’accent sur trois constats essentiels :
1° l’eau est un patrimoine commun national,
2° l’eau est un élément naturel indispensable,
3° inégalement répartie, elle pose des problèmes d’ordre économique, social et sanitaire.

Art. 1. L'eau fait partie du patrimoine commun de la Nation. (...)

Art. 2. L'eau est un bien public relevant du domaine public. Elle ne peut faire l'objet d'appropriation privative que dans les conditions fixées par les dispositions de droit civil traitant de la matière ainsi que des servitudes qui y sont attachées en vigueur sur le territoire de Madagascar.

Art. 28, § 2. En cas de limitation de ressources en eau disponibles, priorité est donnée à l'approvisionnement en eau potable compte tenu des normes de consommation retenues en application du présent code.

Art. 37. Le service public de l’approvisionnement en eau potable et de l’assainissement collectif des eaux usées domestiques, appelé au sens du présent chapitre "service public de l'eau et de l'assainissement", est un service d'approvisionnement en eau potable et d'assainissement collectif des eaux usées domestiques fourni au public, c'est à dire à tout usager, personne physique ou morale de droit public ou privé, avec obligations de service public définies dans des cahiers des charges.

Le service universel de l’approvisionnement en eau potable est l' attribut du service public basé sur
l’obligation de fourniture à tous les usagers d’une quantité minimum et d’un service minimum d’eau potable. (...)



Malawi



Water resources act (1969, Chapter 72:03)
Art. 3. Ownership and control of public water (1) The ownership of all public water is vested in the President.(...)

National water policy (2005)

3.3 Overall Policy Objectives

3.3.3 Ensure that all persons have convenient access to sufficient quantities of water of  acceptable quality and the associated water-related public health and sanitation services at any time and within convenient distance;

3.4 Guiding principles

3.4.1 All people shall have access to potable water and sanitation services to reduce the incidence of water related diseases;

3.4.11 The protection and use of water resources for domestic water supply shall be accorded the highest priority over other uses;
Mali



Loi  n°02- 006/ du 31 janvier 2002 portant code de l'eau

Art. 2. La présente loi fixe les règles d'utilisation, de conservation, de protection et de gestion des ressources en eau. L'eau est un bien relevant du domaine public. Son usage appartient à tous pourvu qu'il ne soit pas contraire à l'intérêt public. Il s'exerce dans le cadre de la solidarité entre usagers.

Art. 4. La protection de l'eau, sa mise en valeur et le développement de la ressource utilisable, dans le respect des équilibres naturels constituent un devoir pour tous : l'État, les collectivités territoriales, les citoyens.

Art. 26. L'assainissement des agglomérations contre les effets nuisibles des eaux vise à assurer l'évacuation rapide et complète des eaux usées domestiques et industrielles ainsi que des eaux pluviales susceptibles de causer des nuisances ou d'inonder les lieux habités, dans des conditions conciliables avec les nécessités de la santé publique et de l'environnement.

Art. 27. L’Administration et les collectivités prennent en charge, avec la participation des usagers concernés, tous travaux tendant à la réalisation d'ouvrage collectif d'évacuation et de traitement des eaux usées et fluviales.

Art. 28. Dans les agglomérations dotées d'un réseau d'égouts, le raccordement à ce réseau est obligatoire pour toute habitation ou établissement connecté au réseau d'eau courante.

Art. 44. La production, le transport et la distribution d’eau potable en vue de satisfaire les besoins du public constituent un service public. Ce service public est délégué à des exploitants dans le cadre de Délégation de Gestion de service public délivré dans les conditions prévues par la présente loi.
Maroc



Loi n° 10-95 sur l'eau
Art. 1er. L'eau est un bien public et ne peut faire l'objet d'appropriation privée sous réserve des dispositions du chapitre II ci-après: Le droit à l'usage de l'eau est accordé dans les conditions fixées par la présente loi.

Art. 86. En cas de pénurie d’eau due à la surexploitation ou à des événements exceptionnels tels que sécheresses, calamités naturelles ou force majeure, l’administration déclare l’état de pénurie, définit la zone sinistrée et édicte les réglementations locales et temporaires ayant pour objet d’assurer en priorité l’alimentation en eau des populations et l’abreuvage des animaux.
Maurice



National Water Policy (en cours d'adoption)

Central water authority act 1971
Mauritanie




Loi n° 2005-030 portant Code de l’eau
Art. 2. L’eau fait partie du patrimoine de la Nation.
L’usage de l’eau constitue un droit reconnu à tous, dans le cadre des lois et règlements en vigueur.
La protection et la mise en valeur des ressources en eau, dans le respect des équilibres naturels, sont d’intérêt général et constituent un impératif national qui implique l’Etat, les collectivités locales, les personnes morales de droit privé et l’ensemble de la population.
La politique de l’Etat vise à garantir l’accès des populations à l’eau potable. Elle privilégie le partenariat entre l’Etat, les collectivités locales et les opérateurs privés, comme cadre de financement et de gestion des infrastructures de production et de distribution d’eau potable.
Art. 5. Les ressources en eau sont allouées en priorité à l’alimentation en eau des populations. (...)

Art. 6. Les ressources en eaux superficielles, souterraines ou atmosphériques, où qu’elles soient situées dans les limites du territoire national, sont un bien collectif et, à ce titre, font partie intégrante du domaine public de l’Etat qui est inaliénable et imprescriptible.
Mozambique



Lei de Aguas (lei n° 16/91 de 3 de Agosto 1991)
Art. 1. - Proprietade das aguas
1. As águas interiores, as superficiais e os respectivos leitos, as subterrâneas, quer brotem naturalmente ou nãõ, são propriedade do Estado, constituindo domínio público hídrico.

Art. 8. - Orientações da politica de gestão de águas
Ao Estado competirá implementar, progressivemanente nas regiões definidas como de intervenção prioritária, uma política des gestão de águas orientada para a realização dos seguintes objectivos:
b) Abastecimento contínuo e suficiente das populações em água potável, para a satisfação das necessidades dométicas e de higiene;

Art. 26. - Prioridade dos aproveitamentos privativos
1. O abastecimento de água à populaçào, para consumo humano e para satisfação das necessidades sanitárias, tem prioridade sobre os demais usos privativos.
Namibie
Water resources management act of 2004 (Act n° 24 of 2004)
Fundamental principles
3. This Act must be interpreted, and be reasonably and fairly applied, in a manner that is consistent with and promotes the following fundamental principles -
(a) equitable access to water resources by every citizen, in support of a healthy and productive life;
(b) access by every citizen, within a reasonable distance from their place of abode, to a quantity of water sufficient to maintain life, health and productive activities;
(c) essentiality of water in life, and safe drinking water a basic human right;


Ownership and management of water resources

4. Subject to this Act -

(a) ownership of water resources in Namibia below and above the surface of the land belongs to the State;


Reliability of water supply

26. (1) The Minister must ensure that all Namibians are provided with an affordable and a reliable water supply that is adequate for basic human needs.

Reservation of water resources
27.(1) The Minister, with the concurrence of the regional councils concerned, may in the prescribed manner reserve part or all of the flow of a watercourse, including any groundwater resource and the water stored in a public reservoir to -(a) meet the domestic use of the water users concerned;

Abstraction of water for domestic use
28.(1) Subject to subsection (3), a person who abstracts water from a water resource for domestic use is exempted from the acquisition of a licence to abstract and use water.

Right to collect meteoric water
31. A person has the right to collect meteoric water collected on his or her own land or the communal land for domestic use.



Niger



Loi portant régime de l'eau (ordonnance n° 93-014 du 2 mars 1993)
Art. 7. L'objectif premier de l'Etat, dans ce domaine, est de mettre à la disposition de chacun de l'eau en quantité suffisante et de bonne qualité.

Art. 9. En période de grande sécheresse, l'Autorité Locale peut interdire les activités grandes consommatrices d'eau et non directement destinées à la consommation humaine, notamment l'arrosage des jardins d'agrément, le remplissage et la vidange des piscines, le lavage des véhicules.
Nigeria

National Water Policy 2004
5.3.3 Principles
The guiding principles of the National Water Resources Policy are:  There shall be no ownership of water but only a right (for environmental and basic human needs) or an authorisation for its use. Any authorisation to use water in terms of the water law shall not be in perpetuity.

Water Resources Decree 1993, Decree n° 101
Rights to take and use of water

Art. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1 of this Decree-
(a) any person -
(i) may take water without charge for his domestic purpose or for watering his livestock from any water course to which the public has free access; 
(ii) may use water for the purpose of fishing or for navigation to the extent that such use is not inconsistent with any other law for the time being in force; or
(iii) who, has a statutory or customary right of occupancy to any land, may take and use water from the underground water source or if abutting on the bank of any water course, from that water course, without charge for domestic purposes, for watering livestock and for personal irrigation schemes.
Ouganda



Water statute 1995
Art. 4. The objectives of the Statute are- (b) to promote the provision of a clean, safe and sufficient supply of water for domestic purposes to all persons;

Art. 7. (1) Subject to Section 8 a person may
(a) while temporarily at any place; or
(b) being the occupier of or a resident on any land, where there is a natural source of water, use that water for domestic use, fighting fire or irrigating a subsistence garden.
National Water Policy 1999
Rwanda


National policy for Water Resource Management (2011)
4.2. The human right to water

International and regional human rights instruments, including the international Declaration on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights have given recognition to the right to water as a fundamental human right, which must progressively be realized by all countries. This means that in allocating water resources account must be taken of the needs of all water users.
Given that available water resources are limited and that not all demands can be met to the full extent, available water resources shall be shared on the principle of “some for all” (rather than “all for some”),which is an expression of the principle of equitable access among present generations. This is one of the “The New Delhi Principles” articulated at Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990s, New Delhi, 1990.

The human right to water means that everyone is entitled to a share of the limited resources available, with priority being given to uses which give effect to the right of access to a basic supply. This is particularly so because water is essential to sustaining life. In this respect theNational Policy and Strategy for Water Supply and Sanitation Services has the objective of ensuring that by 2020 all Rwandans will have access to a basic supply of water.
Water and  sanitation policy (2004)
3.3 Principles of the sector policy
The water and sanitation sector -based policy is based on the following principles:
- Each person has right to access to water services.

3.6 Sector objectives
(i) General Objective
The overall objective of the sector is to improve the living conditions of the population through optimal use of water resources and access of all to water and sanitation services.

Law n° 62/2008 of 10/09/2008 putting in place the use, conservation, protection and management of water resources regulations
Art. 3. General principles

Water is a good belonging to the State public domain. Its use constitutes a recognized right in force to all in the scope of laws and regulation in use.

Art. 7. Priority in water distribution

The supply of water to the populations shall be the priority in the distribution of water resources. The supply of water to animals shall constitute the second priority as well as the hydroelectric energy production.
Water resources management sub-sector strategic plan (2011-2015)
3. GOVERNMENT OF RWANDA’S STRATEGIC VISION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR IWRM

Water as a basic human right: Access to safe drinking water and living in a clean  environment is now universally recognized as a human right guaranteed by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and in the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC). The MDGs probably represent the most visible proof of global recognition and commitment to improved sanitation as a key element of poverty reduction. Rwanda has
demonstrated commitment to achieving the MDG targets as reflected in the progress made thus far.
Sao Tomé-et-Principe



pas de loi ou politique générale, mais un ensemble limité de lois et réglementations dispersées

Plan Directeur des systèmes de l'eau et assainissement (texte non accessible)
Sénégal



Loi n° 81-13 du 4 mars 1981 portant Code de l’eau

Exposé des motifs

Le principe essentiel entre tous est celui de la domanialité publique des eaux, qui fait de cette ressource un bien commun à tous.
Art. 2. Les ressources hydrauliques font partie intégrante du domaine public. Ces ressources sont un bien collectif et leur mise en exploitation sur le territoire nationale est soumise à autorisation préalable et à contrôle.

Art. 75. L’allocation des ressources en eau doit à tout moment tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations
L’alimentation en eau des populations demeure dans tout les cas l’élément prioritaire dans l’allocation des ressources en eau.

Loi n° 2009-24 du 8 juillet 2009 portant Code de l’Assainissement.

Seychelles



aucunes données
Sierra Leone



Water control and supply act of 1963 (Water act en construction)

Water Company Act 2001 (Act n° 6 of 2001)

National water and sanitation policy 2010 (texte non accessible)

Somalie



Somalia : Project of draft regional policy and legal framework for water resources management (draft water act)

Somaliland national water law n° 49/2011 (en somalien)

Somaliland draft water act 2004
Art. 4. - General purposes of National Water Act
4.1 The purposes of this Water Act shall be to improve availability and access to water in a sustainable and equitable way for all different types of uses, in a manner that is environmentally safe. (...)
Art. 9. - Public ownership and co-ownership
9.1 Ownership of natural water resources is vested in the Somaliland State as a trustee for the citizens of Somaliland.


Art. 10. - Private ownership and limitations
10.1 There shall be no private ownership of a natural water resource such as an aquifer, a lake or swamp, or a watercourse.

Comment: natural water resources are considered as a public good, vested in the State

Art. 57 - Common use of surface water and limitations
57.1 There shall be no permission required for use of natural surface water resources provided that the water withdrawal is restricted to the domestic water use, and that no actions or works that modify its natural flow are implemented.

Somaliland draft national water policy 2004
Section A. Context: I. Holistic approach
VII. WATER RIGHTS Access to water sources is traditionally free in Somaliland, and water for immediate human consumption cannot be refused and should not be charged.
Section B. Policy objectives and principles
I. OBJECTIVES OF THE WATER POLICY
Main goal of the water sector development: to improve availability and access to water in a sustainable and equitable way for all different types of uses, in a manner that is environmentally safe.

II. WATER SUPPLY FOR DOMESTIC USE
Water for human consumption is a priority in Somaliland. Given that groundwater is the safest resource that can be used for human consumption, the policy is to focus on groundwater resources for the development of water supply for human consumption.  (...)
Soudan

Water supply and sanitation policy 2010
2. Water supply and environmental sanitation policy outlines
2.2. The objective of the water supply and environmental sanitation policy is to ensure adequate and sustainable domestic water supply and Environmental sanitation services and hygienic practices for all rural, urban and nomadic people of the northern states of Sudan.(...)

2.3. Among the main guiding principles applied for the this policy are the importance of water for life; water as a human right; (...)

4.3. Guiding principles for provision of water supply services
4.3.2. Access to safe water is a fundamental human right for human and animal in line with article (?) of the Interim National Constitution of Sudan.

4.3.5. In normal situation the priority for water use shall be accorded to the personal use of  water for drinking, cooking food, and personal hygiene, while in the case of drought and emergency situation supply of water for drinking shall be given the highest priority among other water uses.

Water resources act 1995 (texte non accessible)

Soudan du Sud

Water policy 2007
2.3 General
principles (...) The following general principles of GOSS Water Policy therefore provide a guiding
framework for all water sector activities and an important point of reference for future development of more detailed implementation strategies:
2.3.1 Water is an important natural resource which is commonly owned by all riparian people.
2.3.2 The Government of South Sudan has a duty to ensure effective  development and use of water resources  for the benefit of all, including poor and vulnerable groups.
2.3.3 Access to sufficient water of acceptable quality to satisfy basic needs is considered a human right and shall be given highest priority in development of water resources.


Swaziland



Water act (Act n° 7 of 2003)
Interpretation

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise provides:
"use for primary purpose" means the use of water for domestic requirements, sanitation, the watering of animals not exceeding 30 head of cattle or the irrigation of land not exceeding one-quarter hectare adjoining or occupied with a homestead of not more than 10 persons but does not include the use of water by a local authority for distribution to the inhabitants of the area;
The Right in Water

Art. 34. (1) All water found naturally in Swaziland is hereby declared a national resource.
(2) There shall be no private right of property in any water found naturally in Swaziland.
(3) A right to divert, store, or use water shall not be acquired by prescription.
(4) It shall not be necessary for any person or community to obtain a permit for the use of water for primary purposes.
Tanzanie

Water supply and sanitation act 2009 (Act n° 12 of 2009)

Art. 4. (1) The objective of this Act is to promote and ensure the right of every person in Tanzania to have access to efficient, effective and sustainable water supply and sanitation services for all purposes by taking into account the following principles, namely - (...)
Water resources management act 2009 (Act n° 11 of 2009)
Art. 4. (1) The objective of this Act is to ensure that the nation's water resources are
protected, used, developed, conserved, managed and controlled in ways which take into account the following fundamental principles, including -
(a) meeting the basic human needs of present and future generations;
(b) promoting equitable access to water and the principle that water is essential for life and that safe drinking water is a basic human right;
National water policy 2002
SECTION I: WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

4.1 Water Resources Allocation, Use and Socio-Economic Considerations

4.1.1 Water as a common use resource Laws and Regulations will be put in place to ensure that, like many other natural resources, by constitution and law, all the water in the country is vested in the United Republic of Tanzania and every citizen has an equal right to access and use of the nation's natural water resources for his and the nations benefit.
SECTION II: RURAL WATER SUPPLY

3.1 Social Principles

Water is a basic need and right

Recognizing that access to clean and safe water is a basic need and right for all human beings, efficient management and equitable use of water in the rural areas will be promoted.

Use of water for human consumption shall receive first priority

In the provision of water supply and sanitation services water required to meet basic human needs shall enjoy priority number one of use by right.


Tchad



Loi n° 016/PR du 18 août 1999 portant Code de l’eau

Art. 149. L'allocation des ressources en eau doit à tout moment tenir compte des besoins sociaux et économiques des populations. L'alimentation en eau potable des populations demeure, dans tous les cas, l'élément prioritaire dans l'allocation des ressources en eau.
Togo
Loi n° 2010 - 004 du 14 juin 2010 portant Code de I'eau
Art. 3. Le présent code adhère aux principes de base de la gestion intégrée des ressources en eau que sont notamment :
1. Principe d'équité, c'est-a-dire le traitement équitable de toutes les catégories sociales de la population vis-a-vis de I'eau, incluant le droit d'acces à I'eau pour tous, I'équité dans la repartition de I'eau à des fins domestiques ou productive en tenant compte des dispositions prises pour la protection et la conservation des ressources en eau ;
Art. 5. L'eau fait partie du domaine public.

Art. 12. L'utilisation libre est celle qui peut être exercée sans déclaration, autorisation ou concession.
Est libre I'utilisation des eaux a des fins domestiques, limitée à la satisfaction des besoins individuels et familiaux, à I'hygiene des personnes, des habitations et des animaux domestiques et à I'arrosage des jardins, à condition que la profondeur de captage, la capacité de puisage et le volume d'eau prelevé ne dépassent pas les seuils arrêtés par le ministre chargé de I'Eau.

Art. 43. En cas de pénurie d'eau, le ministre chargé de I'Eau peut interdire certaines activités grandes consommatrices d'eau, notamment I'arrosage des jardins et terrains de golf, le remplissage des piscines, le lavage des véhicules.

Art. 71. Au sens du présent code, I'eau destinée a la consommation humaine comprend :
- I'eau destinée à la boisson et aux usages domestiques ;
- I'eau destinée à la fabrication de boissons et de la glace ;
- I'eau destinée à la préparation, au conditionnement ou à la conservation de denrées alimentaires.

Art. 110. L'approvisionnement en eau potable des populations demeure I'élément prioritaire dans la répartition des ressoudes en eau. (...)






Tunisie



Loi n°16-75 du 31 mars 1975 portant promulgation du Code des eaux
rien sur priorité d'usage
Zambie



Water resources management act 2011 (Act n° 21 of 2011)
Art. 2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“ domestic or non-commercial purposes ” means the household
use of water for—
(a) drinking, cooking, washing, bathing or sanitation;
(b) subsistence gardening and support of livestock not being commercial livestock husbandry;
(c) subsistence fishing;
(d) the making of bricks for the private use of the occupier;
(e) the dipping of livestock not being commercial livestock husbandry; or
(f) firefighting; for which no permit is required for the use of that water under this Act;
“ reserve ” in relation to a water resource, means the quantity
and quality of water required to—
(a) satisfy basic human needs of all the people who are, or may be, supplied from the water resource; and
(b) protect aquatic ecosystems in order to secure ecologically sustainable development and use of
the water resource;


Art. 3. Subject to this Act and notwithstanding any other law, instrument or document, all water, in its natural state, in Zambia vests in the President and is held by the President on behalf and benefit of the people of Zambia.
Art. 4. Notwithstanding any other law, a person shall not own any water, in its natural state, in Zambia and no property in such water shall be acquired.

Art. 6. The management of water resources in Zambia shall be governed by the following principles—
(b) water is a basic human need and as such domestic and non-commercial needs shall enjoy priority of allocation use;


Art. 62. (1) Subject to this Act, any person may use water for domestic and non-commercial purposes, except that such use shall not be construed as conferring on that person a right, which that person would not otherwise possess, to enter or occupy any land for the purposes of using any water.
(2) A person shall not require a permit for the use of water for domestic and non-commercial purposes, except as otherwise provided under this Act.
Water supply and sanitation act 1997 (Act n° 28 of 1997)
Art. 10 - Obligation to provide water supply and sanitation services
(1) Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary and subject to the other provision of this Act, a local authority shall provide water supply and sanitation services to the area falling under its jurisdiction, except in any area where a person provides such services solely for that person's own benefit or a utility or a service provider is providing such services.
Zimbabwe



Water act 1998 (Act n° 31 of 1998, Chapter  20:24)

Art. 3. - Water vested in President
Subject to this Act, all water is vested in the President.
Art. 2. - interpretation(1) In this act -
“primary purposes,” in relation to the use of water, means the reasonable use of water—
(a) for basic domestic human needs in or about the area of residential premises; or
(b) for the support of animal life, other than fish in fish farms or animals or poultry in feedlots;
(c) for the making of bricks for the private use of the owner, lessee or occupier of the land concerned; or
(d) for dip tanks;
Art. 32. - Use of water for primary purposes
(1) Subject to section thirty-three and Part IX, any person may abstract water for primary purposes:
Provided that this subsection shall not be construed as conferring on any person a right, which he would not otherwise possess, to enter or occupy any land for the purpose of abstracting the water.
Art. 34. - Application for permit
(1) No person shall abstract water for any purpose other than primary purposes except in terms of a permit.


Art. 51. - Certain permits to enjoy preference over other rights to use water
(1) No permits granted by a catchment council, other than permits for the use of water granted to a local authority for primary purposes, shall have the effect of
depriving—
(a) persons of the use of water for primary purposes; or
(b) an owner of land on which there is a permanent pool of the use for primary purposes of water in the permanent pool.

National water authority act 1998 (Act n° 11 of 1998, Chapter  20:25)